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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 17, 2021
Registration No. 333-
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE CO
M
MISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM
 
S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
 
GREENIDGE GENERATION HOLDINGS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
 
7374
 
86-1746728
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
 
590 Plant Road
Dresden, NY 14441
(315)
536-2359
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
 
Jeffrey E. Kirt
Chief Executive Officer
590 Plant Road
Dresden, NY 14441
(315)
536-2359
(Names, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
 
 
Copies to:
 
Chris Zochowski
Richard Alsop
Kristina Trauger
Shearman & Sterling LLP
401 9th Street, NW
Suite 800
Washington, DC 20004
(202)
508-8000
 
Dean M. Colucci
Michelle Geller
Alex Pherson
Duane Morris LLP
1540 Broadway
New York, NY 10036
(973) 424-2020
 
 
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  ☐
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer
 
  
Accelerated filer
 
       
Non-accelerated filer
 
  
Smaller reporting company
 
       
 
 
 
  
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  
 
 
 

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CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
 
 
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
 
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price
(1)(2)
 
Amount of
Registration Fee
(3)
8.50% Senior Notes due 2026
 
$28,750,000
 
$2,665.13
 
 
 
(1)
Estimated solely for the purpose of computing the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).
(2)
Includes up to $3,750,000 in aggregate principal amount of additional Notes which may be issued upon the exercise of a 30-day option granted to the underwriters.
(3)
Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the registration fee for this registration statement is being offset in full by the unused portion of the registration fee ($12,546.50) previously paid by the Registrant in connection with the registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-259678) filed with the SEC on September 20, 2021 (the “2021 Registration Statement”), of which $4,264.20 was used pursuant to the 2021 Registration Statement and $852.84 was used pursuant to a post-effective amendment (File No. 333-260177) to the 2021 Registration Statement filed with the SEC on October 8, 2021, and with the Registrant’s remaining balance in the amount of $4,764.33 to be applied to future filings.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to such Section 8(a), may determine.
 
 
 

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED November 17, 2021
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
$
 
 
GREENIDGE GENERATION HOLDINGS INC.
8.50% Senior Notes due 2026
 
 
We are offering $                 aggregate principal amount of our 8.50% Senior Notes due 2026 (the “Notes”). The Notes will be a further issuance of, rank equally in right of payment with, be fully fungible with, and form a single series for all purposes under the indenture governing the Notes, including, without limitation, waivers, amendments, consents, redemptions and other offers to purchase, with the $55,200,000 aggregate principal amount of 8.50% Senior Notes due 2026 that we issued on October 13, 2021 (the “Original Notes”). Interest on the Notes will accrue from October 13, 2021, and will be paid quarterly in arrears on January 31, April 30, July 31 and October 31 of each year, commencing on January 31, 2022, and at maturity. The Notes will mature on October 31, 2026. We may redeem the Notes for cash in whole or in part at any time at our option (i) on or after October 31, 2023 and prior to October 31, 2024, at a price equal to 102% of their principal amount, (ii) on or after October 31, 2024 and prior to October 31, 2025, at a price equal to 101% of their principal amount, and (iii) on or after October 31, 2025, at a price equal to 100% of their principal amount, plus (in each case noted above) accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption. See “
Description of Notes—Optional Redemption
.” In addition, we may redeem the Notes, in whole, but not in part, at any time at our option, at a redemption price equal to 100.5% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the date of redemption, upon the occurrence of certain change of control events, as described under “
Description of Notes—Optional Redemption Upon Change of Control
.” The Notes will be issued in denominations of $25 and in integral multiples thereof.
The Notes will be our senior unsecured obligations, will rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness, including the Original Notes, and will be senior to any other indebtedness expressly made subordinate to the Notes. The Notes will be effectively subordinated to all of our existing and future secured indebtedness (to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness) and structurally subordinated to all existing and future liabilities of our subsidiaries, including trade payables.
On September 14, 2021, we consummated the transactions contemplated by that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of March 19, 2021, (the “Merger Agreement”), by and among Greenidge, Support.com, Inc. (“Support”) and GGH Merger Sub, Inc. (“Merger Sub”). As contemplated by the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub merged with and into Support, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased and Support survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenidge (such transaction, the “Merger”).
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.
We are also a “controlled company” under the rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) and may take advantage of certain corporate governance exemptions afforded to a “controlled company” under the rules of Nasdaq.
Investing in the Notes involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 16 to read about factors you should consider before you make an investment decision.
Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
 
 
The Original Notes are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market and have been trading under the symbol “GREEL” since October 14, 2021. On November 16, 2021, the last reported sale price of the Original Notes on the Nasdaq Global Market was $25.30. We intend to list the Notes offered hereby on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the same trading symbol. We have no obligation to maintain such listing, and we may delist the Notes at any time.
 
 
  
Per Note
 
  
Total
(3)(4)
 
Public offering price
(1)
  
$
         
 
  
$
         
 
Underwriting discount
(2)
  
$
 
 
  
$
 
 
Proceeds, before expenses, payable to us
(3)
  
$
 
 
  
$
 
 
 
(1)
Plus accrued interest from October 13, 2021 to, but not including,                 , 2021, the settlement date.
(2)
See “
Underwriting
” for a description of all underwriting compensation payable in connection with this offering.
(3)
B. Riley Securities, Inc. (“B. Riley”), as representative of the underwriters, may exercise an option to purchase up to an additional $                aggregate principal amount of Notes offered hereby, within 30 days of the date of this prospectus. If this option is exercised in full, the total offering price will be $                , the total underwriting discount paid by us will be $                , and total proceeds to us, before expenses, will be approximately $                .
(4)
Total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding underwriting discounts and commissions and the Structuring Fee (as defined in “Underwriting”), are estimated to be $                 .
The underwriters expect to deliver the Notes to purchasers in book-entry form through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) for the accounts of its participants, including Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System, and Clearstream Banking,
société anonyme
, on or about                , 2021.
Book-Running Manager
 
  
B. Riley Securities
  
  
  
The date of this prospectus is                 , 2021

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized in connection with this offering. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor the underwriters take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. Neither we nor the underwriters will make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where such offer or sale are not permitted. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate as of the date on the front of those documents only, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. Any statement contained in this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in such prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified will be deemed to constitute a part of this prospectus only as so modified, and any statement so superseded will be deemed not to constitute a part of this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the section of this prospectus titled
“Where You Can Find More Information.”
This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “
Where You Can Find More Information
.”
 
ii

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus includes certain statements that may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements for purposes of federal and state securities laws. These forward-looking statements involve uncertainties that could significantly affect our financial or operating results. These forward-looking statements may be identified by terms such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “foresee,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “could” and “should” and the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current beliefs and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties and are not guarantees of future performance. Forward-looking statements in this document include, among other things, statements regarding our business plan, business strategy and operations in the future. In addition, all statements that address operating performance and future performance, events or developments that are expected or anticipated to occur in the future, including statements relating to creating value for stockholders, benefits of the Merger to our customers, vendors, employees, stockholders and other constituents, are forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Matters and factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements include but are not limited to the matters and factors described in the section “
Risk Factors
”, as well as statements about or relating to or otherwise affected by:
 
   
the ability to recognize the anticipated objectives and benefits of an expansion into multiple data centers in Texas or South Carolina
 
   
the ability to negotiate or execute definitive documentation with respect to potential expansion sites on terms and conditions that are acceptable to Greenidge, whether on a timely basis or at all;
 
   
the ability to recognize the anticipated objectives and any benefits of the Merger described in Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of Greenidge Generation Holdings Inc. herein, including the anticipated tax treatment of the Merger;
 
   
changes in applicable laws, regulations or permits affecting our operations or the industries in which we operate, including regulation regarding power generation, cryptocurrency usage and/or cryptocurrency mining;
 
   
any failure by us to obtain acceptable financing with regard to our growth strategies or operations;
 
   
fluctuations and volatility in the price of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies;
 
   
loss of public confidence in, or use cases of, bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies;
 
   
the potential of cryptocurrency market manipulation;
 
   
the economics of mining cryptocurrency, including as to variables or factors affecting the cost, efficiency and profitability of mining;
 
   
the availability, delivery schedule and cost of equipment necessary to maintain and grow our business and operations, including mining equipment and equipment meeting the technical or other specifications required to achieve our growth strategy;
 
   
the possibility that we may be adversely affected by other economic, business or competitive factors, including factors affecting the industries in which we operate or upon which we rely and are dependent;
 
   
the ability to expand successfully to other facilities, mine other cryptocurrencies or otherwise expand our business;
 
   
changes in tax regulations applicable to us, our assets or cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin;
 
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any litigation involving us;
 
   
costs and expenses relating to cryptocurrency transaction fees and fluctuation in cryptocurrency transaction fees;
 
   
the condition of our physical assets, including that our current single operating facility may realize material, if not total, loss and interference as a result of equipment malfunction or break-down, physical disaster, data security breach, computer malfunction or sabotage; and
 
   
the actual and potential impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic.
Consequently, all of the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus are qualified by the information contained herein, including the information contained under this caption and the information under the section “
Risk Factors
.” No assurance can be given that these are all of the factors that could cause actual results to vary materially from the forward-looking statements.
You should not put undue reliance on forward-looking statements. No assurances can be given that any of the events anticipated by the forward-looking statements will transpire or occur, or if any of them do occur, what impact they will have on the results of our operations, financial condition or cash flows. Actual results may differ materially from those discussed in this prospectus. All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus and we do not assume any duty to update or revise forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, uncertainties or otherwise, as of any future date.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our securities. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, including the risks associated with an investment in our company discussed in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Some of the statements in this prospectus are forward-looking statements. See the section titled “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company” or “Greenidge” refer to Greenidge Generation Holdings Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries following the Merger, other than certain historical information which refers to the business of Greenidge or Support, as applicable, prior to the consummation of the Merger.
This prospectus sets forth certain terms of the Notes that we are offering pursuant to this prospectus. On October 13, 2021, we entered into the Indenture, between us and Wilmington Savings Fund Society, FSB, as trustee (the “Base Indenture”), and the first supplemental indenture thereto, dated October 13, 2021 (the “Supplemental Indenture”), relating to the Original Notes. The Notes will be issued under the same Base Indenture and Supplemental Indenture, which we refer to collectively as the “Indenture”. The Notes will be a further issuance of, rank equally in right of payment with, and form a single series with the Original Notes for all purposes under the Indenture, including, without limitation, waivers, amendments, consents, redemptions and other offers to purchase and voting. We refer to the “Notes” and the “Original Notes” separately within this prospectus since only the Notes are being offered hereby, but any general discussion of the terms of the Notes also applies to the Original Notes since they are treated as the same under the Indenture.
Our Company
Overview
Cryptocurrency Mining and Power Generation Segment Overview
We own a vertically integrated bitcoin mining and power generation facility located in the Town of Torrey, New York. Our historical operations comprise two primary revenue sources:
 
   
Bitcoin-Mining
. Our approximately 106 megawatt (“MW”) natural gas power generation facility powered approximately 44 MW of bitcoin mining capacity as of September 30, 2021. Our bitcoin mining capacity generates revenue in the form of bitcoin by earning bitcoin as rewards and transaction fees for supporting the global bitcoin network with application-specific integrated circuit computers (“ASICs” or “miners”) owned by us. We currently convert most of our earned bitcoin into U.S. dollars. We also generate revenues in U.S. dollars to a lesser extent from third parties for hosting and maintaining their ASICs. We intend to rapidly increase our bitcoin mining capacity of owned ASICs to increase our revenue.
 
   
Independent Electric Generation
. We sell surplus electricity generated by our power plant, and not consumed in bitcoin mining operations, to New York State’s power grid at prices set on a daily basis through the New York Independent Systems Operator (the “NYISO”) wholesale market. We increase or decrease the total amount of electricity sold by the power plant based on prevailing prices in the wholesale electricity market. In addition, we receive revenues from the sale of our capacity and ancillary services in the NYISO wholesale market.
The ASIC miners require a significant amount of power to operate, thus, access to
low-cost
electricity is important to profitably mine bitcoin on a large scale. Unlike most other bitcoin mining companies, we own our
 
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power generation assets and operate our own data center and miners. This allows us to operate without relying on highly variable third-party power purchase agreements or hosting agreements that are subject to renegotiation, counter-party risk or other cost volatility. Our bitcoin mining operations are powered by electricity generated directly by our power plant, which is referred to as
“behind-the-meter”
power because it is not subject to transmission and distribution charges from local utilities. Our owned bitcoin miners had, as of September 30, 2021, the capacity to consume approximately 44 MW of electricity.
We believe that this behind-the-meter power generation capability provides a stable, cost-effective source of power for bitcoin mining activities. Our primary business objective is to grow revenue by (i) executing our plan to increase bitcoin mining capacity at our current plant and (ii) acquiring additional locations, both with or without captive power sources, to expand our bitcoin mining operations.
We are exploring potential new locations where we intend to replicate our vertically integrated bitcoin mining and power generation business model. Additionally, we are evaluating potential partnerships with owners of
low-cost
energy sources, with a particular focus on renewable sources, as a potential avenue to grow our bitcoin mining operations. In October 2021, a subsidiary of Greenidge entered into a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the “LSC Agreement”) with a subsidiary of LSC Communications, Inc. (“LSC”), a Delaware corporation, pursuant to which we have agreed to purchase from LSC two parcels of land containing approximately 175 acres of land located in Spartanburg, South Carolina, including over 750,000 square feet of industrial buildings (the “Property”). LSC is a portfolio company of private investment funds managed by Atlas Holdings LLC. Greenidge’s controlling shareholder consists of certain funds associated with Atlas Holdings LLC. The purchase price of the Property is $15.0 million (the “Purchase Price”). Under the terms of the LSC Agreement, we have deposited $2.5 million in escrow, with such amount to be applied at closing to the Purchase Price. The transaction is expected to close in early December 2021. The LSC Agreement contains customary representations, warranties and covenants of the parties and closing conditions as well as other customary provisions. We expect to finance the Purchase Price with cash on hand. We intend to commence small scale mining operations, using portable equipment, at the Spartanburg facility in late 2021 or early 2022. Additionally, in September 2021, we entered into exclusive agreements regarding the potential construction of new data centers in Texas that includes at least six sites in the pipeline that we and the developer have identified as potential locations for new data centers. In total, these sites have over 2,000MW of electrical capacity and include several locations surrounded by abundant wind and solar power generation. Furthermore, in October 2021, we entered into an agreement giving us an exclusive right of first refusal at multiple power generation sites comprising over 1,000MW of power generation assets in the ERCOT market. The agreement gives us the exclusive right of first refusal to develop data centers at any current or future power generation sites controlled by the counterparty in the ERCOT market until January 2023. We intend to develop our next commercial bitcoin mining location at either the South Carolina location or a location in Texas and are evaluating certain factors to determine which state and location is best suited. We intend to use our significant power plant and bitcoin mining technical
know-how
to achieve at least 500 MW of mining capacity by 2025.
To achieve scale, bitcoin mining requires access to large amounts of
low-cost
electricity, making our owned natural gas power generation facility a competitive advantage. Under this vertically integrated model, we benefit from (i) what we believe to be the only public company in the United States with a bitcoin mining operation of this scale in the United States currently using power generated from its own power plant, (ii) our low power costs, (iii) potential upside from an increase in the price of bitcoin, (iv) the ability to optimize operations to maximize revenue between power production and bitcoin mining, (v) our lack of reliance on third-party power producers, (vi) stability with respect to the energy regulatory landscape, (vii) the experience of our management team and vendor partnerships, and (viii) the backing of Atlas Capital Resources LP, our controlling stockholder (“Atlas”). In addition to pursuing additional sources of captive power, we are also pursuing non-captive expansion opportunities in attractive wholesale and retail electricity markets, such as South Carolina, Texas and the ERCOT market.
 
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Support Services Segment Overview
We also acquired Support pursuant to the Merger and it now operates as our wholly-owned subsidiary. Our Support Services segment provides customer and technical support solutions delivered by home-based employees. Support’s homesourcing model, which enables outsourced work to be delivered by people working from home, has been specifically designed for remote work, with attention to security, recruiting, training, delivery, and employee engagement. See “
Business—Support Services Segment
” for additional information regarding our Support Services segment.
Products and Services
Bitcoin Mining Operations
We began mining bitcoin in 2019 with the construction of a pilot data center to operate approximately 1 MW of bitcoin mining capacity located at our power generation facility in the Town of Torrey, New York. We launched a commercial data center for bitcoin mining and blockchain services in January 2020, and as of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 6,900 miners (including 5 Antminer S19 Pros, 5 Antminer S19s, approximately 6,600 Antminer S17s, approximately 250 Whatsminer M30s and approximately 50 Antminer T17s) deployed on our site capable of producing an estimated aggregate hash rate capacity of approximately 0.4 exahash per second (“EH/s”). Although the number of miners deployed provides a sense of scale of cryptocurrency mining operations as compared to our peers, management believes that hash rate, or the number of hashes a miner can perform in each second, typically expressed in EH/s or terahash per second (“TH/s”) and used as a measure of computational power or mining capacity used to mine and process transactions on a blockchain such as bitcoin, provides a more comparable measure of our fleet’s ability to process cryptocurrency transactions as compared to other bitcoin mining operations.
During the first nine months of 2021, we deployed approximately 8,300 additional miners comprised primarily of S19 and S19 Pro Bitmain Antminers, as well as MicroBT M30 and M31 Whatsminers, bringing our estimated maximum hash rate to 1.2 EH/s consuming approximately 44 MW of the power plant’s total capacity of approximately 106 MW. As of September 30, 2021, we had approximately 15,300 miners (including approximately 2,000 Antminer S19 Pros, approximately 4,000 Antminer S19s, approximately 130 Antminer S19j Pros, approximately 6,600 Antminer S17s, approximately 2,000 Whatsminer M30s, approximately 430 Whatsminer M31s, 10 Avalon
 
A-166s,
 
and approximately 50 Antminer T17s) deployed on our site. At September 30, 2021, we also had outstanding orders pending for approximately 15,900 Antminer S19j Pros, 800 Antminer S19js and 500 Whatsminer M30s. As of November 16, 2021, we have increased our order of 15,900 Antminer S19j Pros by an additional 12,500 units to a total of approximately 28,400 and committed to
purchase 4,000 S19 XP bitcoin miners from Bitmain. It is possible that supply side constraints may impact the ability of our suppliers to timely fulfill our open orders. See “
Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Risks Related to Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency.
With the full deployment of these new miners, our total fleet is expected to comprise approximately 49,000 total miners and is expected to utilize approximately 144 MW of electricity. The new advanced miners have substantially greater hash rate capacities and use electric power more efficiently than our existing miner
 fleet.
With the deployment of the aforementioned miners in 2021, we expect to be able to achieve a total hash rate capacity of at least 1.4 EH/s by the end of 2021. After deploying all of our miners contracted to be purchased, we expect to achieve a total hash rate capacity of approximately 4.7 EH/s. While there is a possibility supply side constraints impact the ability of our suppliers to timely fulfill our open orders, we do not anticipate it impacting the ability of suppliers to deliver on the remaining miners not yet manufactured. See
“Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Risks Related to Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency.”
 
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Wholesale Power Operations
We sell capacity, energy and ancillary services from our approximately 106 MW power generation facility and sell power that we generate, at wholesale, to the NYISO when dispatched, based on the NYISO’s daily supply and demand needs. We began our energy sales in 2017 when our power generation facility came back online after converting from a coal-fired to a natural
gas-fired
facility. We had, as of September 30, 2021, approximately 62 MW of capacity available for sale into the NYISO system (although we would expect that such available MW will be reduced as we add additional bitcoin mining capacity as described above).
We purchase the natural gas to run our power plant through a third-party gas provider and we contract directly with Empire Pipeline Inc. for the delivery of the gas that we purchase. The natural gas is transported to our captive pipeline through which this gas is transported 4.6 miles to our power plant.
We have a contract with Empire Pipeline Inc., which provides for the transportation to our pipeline of up to 15,000 dekatherms of natural gas per day. We also have contracts with Emera Energy covering both the purchase of natural gas and the bidding and sale of electricity through the NYISO.
All of the energy produced by us that is not utilized onsite for bitcoin mining activities is sold through the NYISO. These sales accounted for 35% and 90% of our total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Our Integrated Business Model
Our vertically integrated business model provides
low-cost
power for our bitcoin mining operations and allows us to sell surplus electricity, enabling us to optimize our revenue producing activities.
Bitcoin Revenue
We generate electricity
on-site
from our vertically integrated power plant and use the electricity to power our ASIC miners, generating bitcoin which we then exchange for U.S. dollars. Revenue generated by the mining of bitcoin measured on a dollar per MWh basis, is variable and depends on several factors including but not limited to the price of bitcoin, our proportion of global hash rate processing, transaction volume and the prevailing bitcoin rewards per new block added to the bitcoin blockchain. For the quarter ended September 30, 2021, based on our existing fleet, we generated bitcoin revenue (excluding hosting) at an average rate of approximately $358/MWh.
We have historically converted between 95% and 100% of mined bitcoin to cash on a daily basis using a third-party platform and are subject to the platform’s User Agreement. For security purposes, we utilize a proprietary auto-liquidation script to convert bitcoin to fiat currency automatically upon receiving bitcoin rewards into our wallet, and to transfer the cash received to our operating bank account daily. We utilize hardware wallet verification for account
log-in,
as well as a feature to white-list our bank accounts. This process limits the amount of time bitcoin and fiat currency are stored on the third party platform and is designed to limit our potential loss. Fees incurred to convert bitcoin into fiat currency are subject to standard rates charged by the third party’s published tiered pricing table and, as of September 30, 2021, represent 0.18% of each transaction. Additionally, we hold a nominal amount of bitcoin on our balance sheet, the majority of which is held in “cold storage” custody with a third-party custodian.
Wholesale Power Revenue
We sell capacity, energy, and ancillary services to the wholesale power grid managed by the NYISO. Through these sales, we generate revenue in three streams.
 
   
Capacity revenue: We receive capacity revenue for committing to sell power to the NYISO when dispatched.
 
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Energy revenue: When dispatched by the NYISO, we receive energy revenue based on the hourly price of power.
 
   
Ancillary services revenue: When selected by the NYISO, we receive compensation for the provision of operating reserves.
Revenue generated from the wholesale power market is variable and depends on several factors including but not limited to the supply and demand for electricity and generation capacity in the market and the prevailing price of natural gas. See “
Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Business—
Risks Related to our Power Generation Operations
.”
Competitive Advantages
To achieve scale, bitcoin mining requires access to large amounts of
low-cost
electricity, making our owned natural gas power generation facility a competitive advantage. Under this vertically integrated model, we benefit from the following additional competitive advantages:
 
   
Vertical integration
. We believe that there is no other public company in the United States with a bitcoin mining operation of this scale in the United States currently using power generated from its own power plant.
 
   
Low power costs
. Through access to the Millennium Pipeline price hub which provides relatively low market rates for natural gas and the relatively cool climate where our power plant is located, we are able to produce our energy at competitive rates and largely avoid the extra cost of active cooling of the bitcoin mining operations.
 
   
Bitcoin market upside
. Profitability is highly levered to bitcoin price, difficulty, global network hash rate, and transaction volume.
 
   
Power market upside
. Being online 24/7 allows us to optimize between power and bitcoin mining revenue.
 
   
Self-reliance
. 100% of the power that we use in our bitcoin mining operations is provided by
behind-the-meter
generation with no reliance on third-party power purchase agreements that can be modified or revoked at any time.
 
   
Relatively stable regulatory environment
. Our mining operation and power generation facility located in New York State are regulated in accordance with U.S. and New York State laws which are more stable, for example, than the laws of the People’s Republic of China and certain other
low-cost
power environments.
 
   
Cryptocurrency experience
. We employ a first-class power generation and mining team and partnerships with premier manufacturers for the procurement of reliable and
low-cost
ASIC mining computers of proven performance.
 
   
Blue-chip backing
. Our controlling stockholder, Atlas, is affiliated with an investment firm with more than $6.8 billion of assets under management and prior experience owning and operating more than 1,000 MW of power generation assets.
Support Services Segment
On September 14, 2021, we acquired Support pursuant to the Merger and it now operates as our wholly-owned subsidiary.
 
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Our Support Services Segment provides customer and technical support solutions delivered by home-based employees. Support’s homesourcing model, which enables outsourced work to be delivered by people working from home, has been specifically designed for remote work, with attention to security, recruiting, training, delivery, and employee engagement. See “
Business—Support Services Segment
” for additional information regarding our Support Services Segment.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” under Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As a result, we are permitted to, and intend to, rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements. For so long as we are am emerging growth company, we will not be required to:
 
   
have an auditor report on our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;
 
   
comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis);
 
   
submit certain executive compensation matters to shareholder advisory votes, such as
“say-on-pay,”
“say-on-frequency”
and pay ratio; and
 
   
disclose certain executive compensation related items such as the correlation between executive compensation and performance and comparisons of the CEO’s compensation to median employee compensation.
In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an emerging growth company can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to take advantage of the benefits of this extended transition period. Our financial statements may therefore not be comparable to those of companies that comply with such new or revised accounting standards.
We will remain an “emerging growth company” for up to five years, or until the earliest of (i) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our total annual gross revenues are $1.07 billion or more, (ii) the date that we become a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule
12b-2
under the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our class A common stock that are held by
non-affiliates
exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, or (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in
non-convertible
debt during the preceding three year period.
Controlled Company Exemption
As of November 16, 2021, Atlas and its affiliates control 88.7% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock and have the power to elect a majority of our directors. Pursuant to Nasdaq listing standards, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors is held by an individual, a group or another company qualifies as a “controlled company.” As a controlled company, we are exempt from certain Nasdaq corporate governance requirements, including the requirements to have (i) a board comprised of a majority of independent directors; (ii) compensation of executive officers determined by a majority of the independent directors or a compensation committee comprised solely of independent directors; and (iii) director nominees selected or recommended for our board either by a majority of the independent directors or a nominating committee comprised solely of independent directors. If we cease to be a “controlled company” and
 
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our shares continue to be listed on Nasdaq, we will be required to comply with these standards and, depending on the independence—determination with respect to our then-current directors, we may be required to add additional directors to our board in order to achieve such compliance within the applicable transition periods.
Merger
On September 14, 2021, we consummated the transactions contemplated by that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of March 19, 2021, by and among Greenidge, Support and Merger Sub, Inc. As contemplated by the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub merged with and into Support, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased and Support survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenidge. At the effective time of the Merger, we issued 2,998,261 shares of class A common stock in exchange for all shares of common stock, par value $0.0001, of Support and all outstanding stock option and restricted stock units of Support.
Equity Purchase Agreement with B. Riley
Affiliate
On September 15, 2021, we entered into a common stock purchase agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with an affiliate of B. Riley (the “Investor”) pursuant to which we have the right to “put”, or sell, to the Investor up to $500,000,000 of shares of class A common stock, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement, from time to time during the term of the Purchase Agreement. As provided in the Purchase Agreement, we may require the Investor to purchase shares of our class A common stock from time to time by delivering a put notice to the Investor specifying the total number of shares to be purchased. The per share purchase price for the shares of class A common stock that we elect to sell to the Investor pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, will be determined by reference to the volume weighted average price of our class A common stock for the full period of regular trading hours on Nasdaq on the applicable purchase date on which we have timely delivered written notice to the Investor directing it to purchase shares under the Purchase Agreement, less a fixed 5% discount, which shall be increased to a fixed 6% discount at such time that we received aggregate cash proceeds of $200,000,000 as payment for all shares of class A common stock purchased by the Investor in all prior sales of class A common stock made under the Purchase Agreement. The Investor will have no obligation to purchase shares pursuant to the purchase agreement to the extent that such purchase would cause the Investor to own more than 4.99% of our issued and outstanding shares of class A common stock. Additionally, under the applicable Nasdaq rules, in no event may we issue to the Investor a number of aggregate shares greater than 19.99% of the total number of combined shares of our class A common stock and class B common stock that were outstanding immediately prior to the execution of the Purchase Agreement, unless we obtain stockholder approval to issue shares in excess of such number.
In connection with the Purchase Agreement, we entered into a registration rights agreement with the Investor pursuant to which we agreed to prepare and file a registration statement registering the resale by the Investor of those shares of our class A common stock to be issued under the Purchase Agreement. Such registration statement became effective on October 6, 2021.
Through November 16, 2021, we sold 1,977,500 shares of the Company’s class A common stock to the Investor for proceeds of approximately $47.9 million, net of discounts.
Registered Notes Offering
On October 13, 2021, we completed a registered public offering of $55,200,000 of the Original Notes. The Original Notes bear interest at the rate of 8.50% per annum. The Original Notes will mature on October 31, 2026. The Original Notes are senior unsecured obligations of the Company and rank equal in right of payment with our existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness, including the Notes offered hereby.
 
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We received net proceeds after discounts and commissions, but before expenses and payment of a structuring fee, of approximately $53,268,000 in connection with the offering of the Original Notes.
Increase in Authorized Capital
On September 13, 2021, we filed an amendment to our certificate of incorporation to increase our authorized capital stock. Following the amendment, our authorized capital stock consists of 2,400,000,000 shares of class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 600,000,000 shares of class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 20,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.
Corporate Information
Our principal executive offices are located at 590 Plant Road, Dresden, NY 14441, and our telephone number is (315)
536-2359.
We maintain a website at www.greenidge.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into or otherwise part of this prospectus.
Summary Risk Factors
An investment in the Notes involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks summarized below. These risks are discussed more fully in the “
Risk Factors
” section of this prospectus. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
Risks Related to this Offering
 
   
We may be able to incur substantially more debt, which could have important consequences to you.
 
   
The Notes will be unsecured and therefore will be effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness that we currently have or that we may incur in the future.
 
   
The Notes will be structurally subordinated to the indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries.
 
   
The indenture under which the Notes will be issued contains limited protection for holders of the Notes.
 
   
An increase in market interest rates could result in a decrease in the value of the Notes.
 
   
An active trading market for the Notes may not be sustained, which could limit the market price of the Notes or your ability to sell them.
 
   
We may redeem the Notes before maturity, and you may be unable to reinvest the proceeds at the same or a higher rate of return.
 
   
The rating for the Notes could at any time be revised downward or withdrawn entirely at the discretion of the issuing rating agency.
 
   
Our subsidiaries conduct the substantial majority of our operations and own our operating assets.
Risks Related to Our Business
 
   
Our business and operating plan may be altered due to several external factors, including market conditions, the ability to procure equipment in a quantity, cost and timeline consistent with our business plan, the ability to identify and acquire additional locations to replicate the operating model in place at our existing cryptocurrency mining and power generation facility and the ability to integrate the Support Services segment within our overall business plan.
 
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It may take significant time, expenditure or effort for us to grow our business, including our bitcoin mining operations, through acquisitions, and our efforts may not be successful.
 
   
The loss of any of our management team, an inability to execute an effective succession plan, or an inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could adversely affect our results of operations, strategy and financial performance.
 
   
We have been, are currently, and may be in the future, the subject of legal proceedings, including governmental investigations, relating to our products or services.
 
   
We have a limited operating history, with operating losses as we have grown. If we are unable to sustain greater revenues than our operating costs of bitcoin mining and power generation, as well as expansion plans, we will resume operating losses, which could negatively impact our operations, strategy and financial performance.
 
   
While we have multiple sources of revenue from our business and operations, these sources of revenue currently all depend on the single natural gas power generation facility that we operate. Any disruption to our single power plant would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations, as well as our results of operations and financial condition.
 
   
As the aggregate amount of computing power, or hash rate, in the bitcoin network increases, the amount of bitcoin earned per unit of hash rate decreases; as a result, in order to maintain our market share, we may have to incur significant capital expenditures in order to expand our fleet of miners.
 
   
The properties utilized by us in our bitcoin mining operations may experience damage, including damage not covered by insurance.
 
   
Our bitcoin may be subject to loss, theft or restriction on access.
 
   
If bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies are determined to be investment securities, and we hold a significant portion of our assets in such cryptocurrency, investment securities or
non-controlling
equity interests of other entities, we may inadvertently violate the Investment Company Act. We could incur large losses to modify our operations to avoid the need to register as an investment company or could incur significant expenses to register as an investment company or could terminate operations altogether.
 
   
There has been limited precedent set for financial accounting of digital assets and so it is unclear how we will be required to account for digital asset transactions.
 
   
Regulatory changes or actions may alter the nature of an investment in us or restrict the use of bitcoin in a manner that adversely affects our business, prospects or operations.
 
   
We are subject to risks related to Internet disruptions, which could have an adverse effect on our ability to mine bitcoin.
 
   
Our future success will depend significantly on the price of bitcoin, which is subject to risk and has historically been subject to wide swings and significant volatility.
 
   
We may not be able to compete effectively against other companies, some of whom have greater resources and experience.
 
   
The impact of geopolitical and economic events on the supply and demand for bitcoin is uncertain.
 
   
Bitcoin miners and other necessary hardware are subject to malfunction, technological obsolescence, the global supply chain and difficulty and cost in obtaining new hardware.
 
   
We face risks and disruptions related to the
COVID-19
pandemic and supply chain issues, including in semiconductors and other necessary mining components, which could significantly impact our operations and financial results.
 
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We may not adequately respond to rapidly changing technology.
 
   
A failure to properly monitor and upgrade the bitcoin network protocol could damage the bitcoin network which could, in turn, have an adverse effect on our business.
 
   
Over time, incentives for bitcoin miners to continue to contribute processing power to the bitcoin network may transition from a set reward to transaction fees. If the incentives for bitcoin mining are not sufficiently high, we may not have an adequate incentive to continue to mine.
 
   
Incorrect or fraudulent cryptocurrency transactions may be irreversible.
 
   
We may not be able to realize the benefits of forks, and forks in a digital asset network may occur in the future which may affect the value of bitcoin held by us.
Summary Consolidated Financial Data of Greenidge
The following tables present summary historical consolidated financial data of Greenidge. The summary historical consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and related notes of Greenidge contained elsewhere in this prospectus and the information under “
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for Greenidge
.”
The summary financial data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years then ended are derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Greenidge contained elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary financial data as of September 30, 2021 and for the three months and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and September 30, 2020 are derived from the unaudited consolidated financial statements of Greenidge contained elsewhere in this prospectus. Our financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
The summary financial data is only a summary and should be read in conjunction with the historical financial statements and related notes. Greenidge is the successor entity for accounting purposes to Greenidge Generation Holdings LLC (“GGH”) as a result of the corporate restructuring consummated in January 2021.
Pursuant to this restructuring, Greenidge was incorporated in the State of Delaware on January 27, 2021 and, on January 29, 2021, entered into an asset contribution and exchange agreement with all holders of GGH, pursuant to which Greenidge acquired all of the ownership interests in GGH in exchange for 28,000,000 shares of our common stock. As a result of this transaction, GGH became our wholly-owned subsidiary. The financial information presented herein is that of GGH through January 29, 2021 and Greenidge thereafter.
 
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Statement of Operations Data (in thousands except per share amounts):
 
    
Three Months Ended
September 30,
    
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
    
2021
    
2020
    
2021
    
2020
 
Total revenue
   $ 35,754      $ 6,123      $ 62,993      $ 13,937  
Cost of revenue (exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown below)
     9,659        4,072        19,046        8,681  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
     5,446        1,493        12,017        4,131  
Merger and other costs
     29,847        —          31,095        —    
Depreciation and amortization
     2,667        1,064        5,531        3,227  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Loss from operations
     (11,865      (506      (4,696      (2,102
Total other (expense) income, net
     (1,020      217        (1,263      (364
Benefit for income taxes
     (4,989      —          (2,860      —    
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Net loss
   $ (7,896    $ (289    $ (3,099    $ (2,466
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Basic
   $ (0.28       $ (0.13   
Diluted
   $ (0.28       $ (0.13   
 
    
Year Ended
December 31,
 
    
2020
    
2019
 
Total revenue
   $ 20,114      $ 4,439  
Cost of revenue (exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown below)
     12,600        4,900  
Selling, general and administrative expenses
     5,581        5,833  
Depreciation and amortization
     4,564        1,679  
Loss from operations
     (2,631      (7,973
Interest and other expense, net
     (659      (502
Net loss
   $ (3,290    $ (8,475
Selected Balance Sheet Data (in thousands):
 
    
September 30,
2021
    
December 31,
2020
 
Current assets
   $ 64,425      $ 14,541  
Long-term assets
     193,886        50,834  
  
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total assets
     258,311        65,375  
Total liabilities
     52,509        21,015  
Total stockholders’ equity
   $ 205,802      $ 44,360  
Summary Consolidated Financial Data of Support
The following tables present summary historical consolidated financial data of Support. The summary historical consolidated financial data of Support as of December 31, 2020 and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 have been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Support contained in its Annual Report on Form
10-K/A
for the year ended December 31, 2020 and contained elsewhere in this prospectus.
The summary historical consolidated financial data is only a summary and should be read together with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus.
 
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Statement of Operations Data (in thousands except per share amounts):
 
    
Year Ended
December 31,
 
    
2020
    
2019
 
Total revenue
     43,864        63,333  
Cost of revenue
     28,921        46,865  
Gross profit
     14,943        16,468  
Total operating expenses
     14,891        13,517  
Income from operations
     52        2,951  
Interest income and other, net
     496        1,049  
Income taxes
     (102      (154
Net income
   $ 446      $ 3,846  
Net income per share: Basic and Diluted
   $ 0.02      $ 0.20  
Selected Balance Sheet Data (in thousands):
 
    
December 31,
2020
 
Current assets
   $ 37,612  
Long-term assets
     1,654  
  
 
 
 
Total assets
   $ 39,266  
Total liabilities
   $ 4,830  
Total stockholders’ equity
   $ 34,436  
 
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THE OFFERING
The summary below describes the principal terms of the Notes. Some of the terms and conditions described below are subject to important limitations and exceptions. See “Description of Notes” for a more detailed description of the terms and conditions of the Notes and the Original Notes. All capitalized terms not defined herein have the meanings specified in “Description of Notes.” Unless otherwise indicated, the information in this prospectus assumes that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional Notes.
 
Issuer:
Greenidge Generation Holdings Inc.
 
Notes Offered:
$                 aggregate principal amount of 8.50% Senior Notes due 2026 (or $                aggregate principal amount of 8.50% Senior Notes due 2026 if the underwriters’ option is exercised in full).
 
Offering Price:
        % of the principal amount plus accrued interest from October 13, 2021 to, but not including,                 , 2021, totaling $                , and any additional interest from                 , 2021 if settlement occurs after that date.
 
Fungibility:
The Notes will be consolidated, form a single series, and be fully fungible with our outstanding 8.50% Notes due 2026 issued in an aggregate principal amount of $55.2 million on October 13, 2021. After giving effect to the offering of the Notes, the total amount outstanding of our 8.50% Notes due 2026 will be $                .
 
Maturity Date:
The Notes will mature on October 31, 2026, unless redeemed prior to maturity.
 
Interest Rate and Payment Dates:
8.50% interest per annum on the principal amount of the Notes, payable quarterly in arrears on January 31, April 30, July 31 and October 31 of each year, beginning on January 31, 2022 and at maturity.
 
Ranking:
The Notes will be our senior unsecured obligations and will rank:
 
   
senior to the outstanding shares of our common stock;
 
   
senior to any of our future subordinated debt;
 
   
pari passu
(or equally) with our existing and future unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness, including the $55.2 million principal amount of the Original Notes;
 
   
effectively subordinated to any existing or future secured indebtedness (including indebtedness that is initially unsecured to which we subsequently grant security), to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness; and
 
   
structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness of our subsidiaries, financing vehicles or similar facilities.
 
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  The indenture governing the Notes does not limit the amount of indebtedness that we or our subsidiaries may incur or whether any such indebtedness can be secured by our assets. As of October 31, 2021, we had approximately $82.9 million of outstanding indebtedness, inclusive of $55.2 million of the Original Notes, which was unsecured, and approximately $0.8 million of outstanding capital lease obligations, which was secured.
 
Guarantors:
The Notes will not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries or affiliates.
 
Optional Redemption:
We may redeem the Notes for cash in whole or in part at any time at our option (i) on or after October 31, 2023 and prior to October 31, 2024, at a price equal to 102% of their principal amount, (ii) on or after October 31, 2024 and prior to October 31, 2025, at a price equal to 101% of their principal amount, and (iii) on or after October 31, 2025, at a price equal to 100% of their principal amount, plus (in each case noted above) accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption. See “
Description of Notes—Optional Redemption
” for additional details.
 
  In addition, we may redeem the Notes, in whole, but not in part, at any time at our option, at a redemption price equal to 100.5% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the date of redemption, upon the occurrence of certain change of control events. See “
Description of Notes—Optional Redemption Upon Change of Control
.”
 
Sinking Fund:
The Notes will not be subject to any sinking funding (i.e., no amounts will be set aside by us to ensure repayment of the Notes at maturity).
 
Use of Proceeds:
We anticipate using the net proceeds of this offering for general corporate purposes, including funding capital expenditures, future acquisitions, investments and working capital and repaying indebtedness. For additional information, see “
Use of Proceeds
.”
 
Events of Default:
Events of default generally will include failure to pay principal, failure to pay interest, failure to observe or perform any other covenant or warranty in the Notes, and the Original Notes, or in the indenture that governs the Notes, and the Original Notes, and certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization. See “
Description of Notes—Events of Default
.”
 
No Financial Covenants:
The indenture governing the Notes does not contain financial covenants.
 
Additional Notes:
We may create and issue additional Notes ranking equally and ratably with the Notes and the Original Notes in all respects, so that such further additional Notes will constitute and form a single series with the Notes and the Original Notes and will have the same terms as to
 
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status, redemption or otherwise (except the price to public, the issue date, and, if applicable, the initial interest accrual date and initial interest payment date) as the Notes and the Original Notes; provided that if any such further additional Notes are not fungible with the Notes initially offered hereby for U.S. federal income tax purposes, such further additional Notes will have one or more separate CUSIP numbers.
 
Defeasance:
The Notes are subject to legal and covenant defeasance by us. See “
Description of Notes—Defeasance
” for more information.
 
Listing:
The issued and outstanding Original Notes are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market and have been trading under the symbol “GREEL” since October 14, 2021. We intend to list the Notes on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the same trading symbol.
 
Form and Denomination:
The Notes will be issued in book-entry form in denominations of $25 and integral multiples thereof. The Notes will be represented by a permanent global certificate deposited with the trustee as custodian for DTC and registered in the name of a nominee of DTC. Beneficial interests in any of the Notes will be shown on, and transfers will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC and its direct and indirect participants and any such interest may not be exchanged for certificated securities, except in limited circumstances.
 
Settlement:
Delivery of the Notes will be made against payment therefor on or about                , 2021.
 
Trustee:
Wilmington Savings Fund Society, FSB
 
Governing Law:
The indenture is and the Notes will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.
 
Risk factors:
Investing in the Notes involves a high degree of risk and purchasers may lose their entire investment. See “
Risk Factors
” below and the other information included elsewhere in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in the Notes.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in the Notes involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully read and consider all of the risks described below, together with all of the other information contained or referred to in this prospectus, including the matters addressed in “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” before making an investment decision with respect to the Notes. If any of the following events occur, our financial condition, business and results of operations (including cash flows) may be materially adversely affected. As a result, you could lose some or all of any investment you may have or may make in the Company.
Risks Related to this Offering
We may be able to incur substantially more debt, which could have important consequences to you.
We may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. The terms of the indenture governing the Notes do not prohibit us from doing so. If we incur any additional indebtedness that ranks equally with the Notes, the holders of that debt will be entitled to share ratably with you in any proceeds distributed in connection with any insolvency, liquidation, reorganization or dissolution. This may have the effect of reducing the amount of proceeds paid to you. Incurrence of additional debt would also further reduce the cash available to invest in operations, as a result of increased debt service obligations. If new debt is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face could intensify.
Our level of indebtedness could have important consequences to you, because:
 
   
it could affect our ability to satisfy our financial obligations, including those relating to the Notes;
 
   
a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations would have to be dedicated to interest and principal payments and may not be available for operations, capital expenditures, expansion, acquisitions or general corporate or other purposes;
 
   
it may impair our ability to obtain additional debt or equity financing in the future;
 
   
it may limit our ability to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness on or before maturity;
 
   
it may limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry; and
 
   
it may make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business, our industry or the economy in general.
Our operations may not generate sufficient cash to enable us to service our debt. If we fail to make a payment on the Notes, we could be in default on the Notes, and this default could cause us to be in default on other indebtedness, to the extent outstanding. Conversely, a default under any other indebtedness, if not waived, could result in acceleration of the debt outstanding under the related agreement and entitle the holders thereof to bring suit for the enforcement thereof or exercise other remedies provided thereunder. In addition, such default or acceleration may result in an event of default and acceleration of other indebtedness of the Company, entitling the holders thereof to bring suit for the enforcement thereof or exercise other remedies provided thereunder. If a judgment is obtained by any such holders, such holders could seek to collect on such judgment from the assets of the Company. If that should occur, we may not be able to pay all such debt or to borrow sufficient funds to refinance it. Even if new financing were then available, it may not be on terms that are acceptable to us.
However, no event of default under the Notes would result from a default or acceleration of, or suit, other exercise of remedies or collection proceeding by holders of, our other outstanding debt, if any. As a result, all or substantially all of our assets may be used to satisfy claims of holders of our other outstanding debt, if any, without the holders of the Notes having any rights to such assets. The indenture governing the Notes does not restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness.
 
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The Notes will be unsecured and therefore will be effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness that we currently have or that we may incur in the future.
As with the Original Notes, the Notes will not be secured by any of our assets or any of the assets of our subsidiaries. As a result, the Notes will be effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness that we or our subsidiaries have currently outstanding, or may incur in the future (or any indebtedness that is initially unsecured to which we subsequently grant security) to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness. The indenture governing the Notes does not prohibit us or our subsidiaries from incurring additional secured (or unsecured) indebtedness in the future. In any liquidation, dissolution, bankruptcy or other similar proceeding, the holders of any of our existing or future secured indebtedness and the secured indebtedness of our subsidiaries may assert rights against the assets pledged to secure that indebtedness and may consequently receive payment from these assets before they may be used to pay other creditors, including the holders of the Notes.
The Notes will be structurally subordinated to the indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries.
As with the Original Notes, the Notes are obligations exclusively of Greenidge Generation Holdings Inc., and not of any of our subsidiaries. None of our subsidiaries is a guarantor of the Notes, and the Notes are not required to be guaranteed by any subsidiaries we may acquire or create in the future. Therefore, in any bankruptcy, liquidation or similar proceeding, all claims of creditors (including trade creditors) of our subsidiaries will have priority over our equity interests in such subsidiaries (and therefore the claims of our creditors, including holders of the Notes) with respect to the assets of such subsidiaries. Even if we are recognized as a creditor of one or more of our subsidiaries, our claims would still be effectively subordinated to any security interests in the assets of any such subsidiary and to any indebtedness or other liabilities of any such subsidiary senior to our claims. Consequently, the Notes will be structurally subordinated to all indebtedness and other liabilities (including trade payables) of any of our subsidiaries and any subsidiaries that we may in the future acquire or establish as financing vehicles or otherwise. The indenture governing the Notes does not prohibit us or our subsidiaries from incurring additional indebtedness in the future. In addition, future debt and security agreements entered into by our subsidiaries may contain various restrictions, including restrictions on payments by our subsidiaries to us and the transfer by our subsidiaries of assets pledged as collateral.
The indenture under which the Notes will be issued contains limited protection for holders of the Notes.
The indenture under which the Notes will be issued offers limited protection to holders of the Notes. The terms of the indenture do not and the terms of the Notes will not restrict our or any of our subsidiaries’ ability to engage in, or otherwise be a party to, a variety of corporate transactions, circumstances or events that could have an adverse impact on your investment in the Notes. In particular, the terms of the indenture do not and the terms of the Notes will not place any restrictions on our or our subsidiaries’ ability to:
 
   
issue debt securities or otherwise incur additional indebtedness or other obligations, including (1) any indebtedness or other obligations that would be equal in right of payment to the Notes, (2) any indebtedness or other obligations that would be secured and therefore rank effectively senior in right of payment to the Notes to the extent of the values of the assets securing such debt, (3) indebtedness of ours that is guaranteed by one or more of our subsidiaries and which therefore is structurally senior to the Notes and (4) securities, indebtedness or obligations issued or incurred by our subsidiaries that would be senior to our equity interests in our subsidiaries and therefore rank structurally senior to the Notes with respect to the assets of our subsidiaries;
 
   
pay dividends on, or purchase or redeem or make any payments in respect of, capital stock or other securities subordinated in right of payment to the Notes;
 
   
sell assets (other than certain limited restrictions on our ability to consolidate, merge or sell all or substantially all of our assets);
 
   
enter into transactions with affiliates;
 
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create liens (including liens on the shares of our subsidiaries) or enter into sale and leaseback transactions;
 
   
make investments; or
 
   
create restrictions on the payment of dividends or other amounts to us from our subsidiaries.
In addition, the indenture does not include any protection against certain events, such as a change of control, a leveraged recapitalization or “going private” transaction (which may result in a significant increase of our indebtedness levels), restructuring or similar transactions. Furthermore, the terms of the indenture do not and the terms of the Notes will not protect holders of the Notes in the event that we experience changes (including significant adverse changes) in our financial condition, results of operations or credit ratings, as they do not require that we or our subsidiaries adhere to any financial tests or ratios or specified levels of net worth, revenues, income, cash flow, or liquidity. Also, an event of default or acceleration under our other indebtedness would not necessarily result in an Event of Default under the Notes.
Our ability to recapitalize, incur additional debt and take a number of other actions that are not limited by the terms of the Notes may have important consequences for you as a holder of the Notes, including making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to the Notes or negatively affecting the trading value of the Notes.
Other debt we issue or incur in the future could contain more protections for its holders than the indenture and the Notes, including additional covenants and events of default. The issuance or incurrence of any such debt with incremental protections could affect the market for and trading levels and prices of the Notes.
An increase in market interest rates could result in a decrease in the value of the Notes.
In general, as market interest rates rise, notes bearing interest at a fixed rate decline in value. Consequently, if you purchase the Notes, and the market interest rates subsequently increase, the market value of your Notes may decline. We cannot predict the future level of market interest rates.
An active trading market for the Notes may not be sustained, which could limit the market price of the Notes or your ability to sell them.
Although the Original Notes are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “GREEL” and we intend to list the Notes offered hereby under the same trading symbol, we cannot provide any assurances that an active trading market will develop for the Notes or that you will be able to sell your Notes. If the Notes are traded after their initial issuance, they may trade at a discount from their initial offering price depending on prevailing interest rates, the market for similar securities, our credit ratings, general economic conditions, our financial condition, performance and prospects and other factors. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that a liquid trading market for the Notes will be sustained, that you will be able to sell your Notes at a particular time or that the price you receive when you sell will be favorable. To the extent an active trading market is not sustained, the liquidity and trading price for the Notes may be harmed. Accordingly, you may be required to bear the financial risk of an investment in the Notes for an indefinite period of time.
In addition, there may be a limited number of buyers when you decide to sell your Notes. This may affect the price, if any, offered for your Notes or your ability to sell your Notes when desired or at all.
We may redeem the Notes before maturity, and you may be unable to reinvest the proceeds at the same or a higher rate of return.
We may redeem the Notes in whole or in part on or after October 31, 2023, at our option at the redemption prices as described under “
Description of Notes—Optional Redemption
.” In addition, we may redeem the Notes, in
 
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whole, but not in part, at any time at our option, at a redemption price equal to 100.5% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the date of redemption, upon the occurrence of certain change of control events, as described under “
Description of Notes—Optional Redemption Upon Change of Control
.” If a redemption does occur, you may be unable to reinvest the money you receive in the redemption at a rate that is equal to or higher than the rate of return on the Notes.
We may issue additional Notes.
The indenture governing the Notes provides that we may from time to time, without the consent of the holders of the Notes, create and issue further additional Notes which will be equal in rank to the Notes; provided that if any such additional Notes are not fungible with the Notes initially offered hereby for U.S. federal income tax purposes, such further additional Notes will have one or more separate CUSIP numbers. For the avoidance of doubt, such further additional Notes will still constitute a single series with all other Notes issued under the indenture for all purposes, including waivers, amendments, redemptions and offers to purchase.
Increased leverage as a result of this offering may harm our financial condition and results of operations.
As of October 31, 2021, our indebtedness consisted of approximately $82.9 million of outstanding indebtedness, inclusive of $55.2 million of the Original Notes, which was unsecured, and approximately $0.8 million of outstanding capital lease obligations, which was secured. See “
Description of Other Indebtedness
” for additional details.
The rating for the Notes could at any time be revised downward or withdrawn entirely at the discretion of the issuing rating agency.
Although we have obtained a rating for the Notes, and the Original Notes, ratings only reflect the views of the issuing rating agency or agencies and such ratings could at any time be revised downward or withdrawn entirely at the discretion of the issuing rating agency. A rating is not a recommendation to purchase, sell or hold the Notes. Ratings do not reflect market prices or suitability of a security for a particular investor and the rating of the Notes may not reflect all risks related to us and our business, or the structure or market value of the Notes. We may elect to issue other securities for which we may seek to obtain a rating in the future. If we issue other securities with a rating, such ratings, if they are lower than market expectations or are subsequently lowered or withdrawn, could adversely affect the market for or the market value of the Notes.
Our subsidiaries conduct the substantial majority of our operations and own our operating assets.
Our subsidiaries conduct the substantial majority of our operations and own our operating assets. As a result, our ability to make required payments on the Notes depends in part on the operations of our subsidiaries and our subsidiaries’ ability to distribute funds to us. To the extent our subsidiaries are unable to distribute, or are restricted from distributing, funds to us, we may be unable to fulfill our obligations under the Notes. Our subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities and have no obligation, contingent or otherwise, to pay amounts due on the Notes or to make funds available for that purpose. The Notes will not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries or any other person.
 
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Risks Related to Our Business
Risks Related to Our Business Generally
Our business and operating plan may be altered due to several external factors, including market conditions, the ability to procure equipment in a quantity, cost and timeline consistent with our business plan, the ability to identify and acquire additional locations to replicate the operating model in place at our existing cryptocurrency mining and power generation facility and the ability to integrate the Support Services segment within our overall business plan.
We have developed a business plan that contemplates the anticipated completion of our build out in the Town of Torrey, New York, expansion into the Spartanburg facility, as well as the acquisition of additional power generation assets where we envision replicating our existing business model. The business plan is predicated on certain assumptions regarding many factors, some of which include no disruption to current operations from regulatory changes requirements, and procurement of additional mining equipment of certain performance specifications at certain future dates and prices, as well as the acquisition of additional locations. Our business plan is subject to change to the extent we are not able to achieve the expected outcomes consistent with our current assumptions. There can be no assurance that we will realize the benefits of our growth strategy and business plan, including with respect to our significant capital expenditures relating to orders of mining equipment. Furthermore, we remain in the process of developing other sites to deploy this mining equipment, and any disruption in developing such sites may delay our deployment efforts. Any delay in developing other sites, could delay our ability to deploy mining equipment that we receive, and materially adversely affect our results of operation, strategy and financial performance.
As we continue to integrate the Support Services segment within our business model, we may elect or may be required to alter our business plans or change our business strategy with respect to the segment. Any change to our business plans or strategy will present risks related to Support’s ability to execute on these changes and may require us to make additional investments in the Support Services segment, all of which could harm our results of operations and financial performance.
It may take significant time, expenditure or effort for us to grow our business, including our bitcoin mining operations, through acquisitions, and our efforts may not be successful.
The number of bitcoin and other cryptocurrency mining companies has greatly increased in recent years. As we and other bitcoin/cryptocurrency mining companies seek to grow their mining capacity or access additional sources of electricity to power their growing mining operations, the acquisition of existing cryptocurrency mining companies and standalone electricity production facilities may become an attractive avenue of growth. Currently, we source our electricity for our bitcoin mining operations from our captive 106 MW power generation facility located in the Town of Torrey, New York. If we determine to expand our operations, we may want to do so through the acquisition of additional bitcoin or other cryptocurrency mining businesses or electricity generating power plants. We expect that operations at a new site will commence in 2022; however, there can be no assurance that operations will commence on the timeline indicated, or that the expected benefits and advantages of such expansion will be realized. Further attractive acquisition targets may not be available to us for a number of reasons, such as growing competition for attractive targets, economic or industry sector downturns, geopolitical tensions, regulatory changes, environmental challenges, increases in the cost of additional capital needed to close business combination or operate targets post-business combination. Our inability to identify and consummate acquisitions of attractive targets could have a material and adverse impact on our long term growth prospects, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations, strategy and financial performance.
Additionally, we may engage in the acquisition of other companies, investments, joint ventures and strategic alliances outside of our Support Services segment’s current line of business to design and develop new technologies and products, to strengthen competitiveness by scaling up and to expand our existing business line
 
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into new regions. Such transactions, especially in new lines of business, inherently involve risk due to the difficulties in integrating operations, technologies, products and personnel. Integration issues are complex, time-consuming and expensive and, without proper planning and implementation, may adversely affect the existing business. We may incur significant acquisition, administrative and other costs in connection with these transactions, including costs related to integration or restructuring of acquired businesses. These investments may not provide a return or lead to an increase in our Support Services segment’s operating results, and the benefits of these investments may not be obtained. There can be no assurance that these transactions will be beneficial to our Support Services segment’s results of operations or financial condition. Even assuming these transactions are beneficial, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully integrate the new business lines acquired or achieve all or any of the initial objectives of these transactions.
The loss of any of our management team, an inability to execute an effective succession plan, or an inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could adversely affect our results of operations, strategy and financial performance.
Our operations, strategy and business depend to a significant degree on the skills and services of our management, including Jeffrey Kirt, our Chief Executive Officer, Dale Irwin, our President, Timothy Rainey, our current Chief Financial Officer and incoming Treasurer as of January 1, 2022, and Robert Loughran, who currently provides consulting services to the Company’s finance department and is our incoming Chief Financial Officer as of January 1, 2022. See “
Management—New Officer Appointment
.”
At present, our management team is small, and we will need to continue to grow our management in order to alleviate pressure on our existing management team and in order to continue to develop our business and execute on any future identification and expansion into other potential power generation, cryptocurrency mining and support services opportunities. If our management, including any new hires that we may make, fails to work together effectively or to execute our plans and strategies on a timely basis, our business could be harmed. Furthermore, if we fail to execute an effective contingency or succession plan with the loss of any member of management, the loss of such management personnel may significantly disrupt our business.
The loss of key members of management could inhibit our business. Our future success also depends in large part on our ability to attract, retain and motivate key management and operating personnel. As we continue to develop and expand our operations, we may require personnel with different skills and experiences, and who have a sound understanding of our business and the bitcoin industry. The market for highly qualified personnel in the industries in which we operate is very competitive, and we may be unable to attract and retain such personnel. If we are unable to attract and retain such personnel, our business could be harmed.
We have been, are currently, and may be in the future, the subject of legal proceedings, including governmental investigations, relating to our products or services.
We, or certain of our subsidiaries, have been named as a party to several lawsuits, government inquiries or investigations and other legal proceedings, and may be named in additional ones in the future. Litigation may be time consuming, expensive, and disruptive to normal business operations, and the outcome of litigation is difficult to predict. The ultimate outcome of litigation could have a material adverse effect on our and the trading price for our securities. Furthermore, litigation, regardless of the outcome, may result in significant expenditures, diversion of our management’s time and attention from the operation of the business and damage to our reputation or relationship with third parties, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, strategy and financial performance.
On December 17, 2020, certain parties filed an Article 78 petition with the Supreme Court of the State of New York, Yates County, that challenges the Town of Torrey’s site plan review for the planned expansion of our bitcoin mining data center. We were joined in the petition as a necessary party. The petition asserts, among other things, a violation of the State of New York Environmental Quality Review Act for failing to identify all areas of
 
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environmental concern or appropriately review the potential environmental impacts of the planned expansion of our data center. This claim could result in litigation, may be time-consuming and costly, divert management resources, require us to change, postpone or halt the construction of our planned bitcoin mining data center expansion, or have other adverse effects on our business. In addition, costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce our approved building rights.
Since the announcement of the Merger, six complaints have been filed by alleged individual stockholders of Support against Support, the individual directors of Support and, in two of the cases, Greenidge and Merger Sub in various U.S. federal district courts. The lawsuits generally allege that the Form S-4 Registration Statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with the Merger on May 4, 2021 is misleading and/or omits certain material information. In addition, one of the lawsuits also alleges that the members of the Support board breached their fiduciary duties in negotiating and approving the Merger Agreement and that Greenidge and Merger Sub aided and abetted the Support directors’ alleged breaches of fiduciary duty. All six lawsuits seek, among other things, to enjoin the Merger, or in the event that an injunction is not entered and the Merger closes, rescission of the Merger and unspecified money damages, costs and attorneys’ and experts’ fees (see Note 13).
Our Support Services segment involves direct sale and licensing of services and software to consumers and small and medium sized businesses, and it typically includes customary indemnification provisions in favor of its partners in its agreements for the distribution of its services and software. As a result, we may be subject to consumer litigation and legal proceedings related to our Support Services segment’s services and software, including putative class action claims and similar legal actions, including, but not limited to, consumer litigation and legal proceedings. We may also be subject to employee litigation and legal proceedings related to our employment practices attempted on a class or representative basis. Such litigation can be expensive and time-consuming regardless of the merits of any action and could divert management’s attention from our business. The cost of defense can be large as can any settlement or judgment in an action. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, strategy and financial performance.
We have a limited operating history, with operating losses as we have grown. If we are unable to sustain greater revenues than our operating costs of bitcoin mining and power generation, as well as expansion plans, we will resume operating losses, which could negatively impact our operations, strategy and financial performance.
We have undergone a transformation in recent years and began bitcoin mining in May 2019. We have experienced recurring losses from operations in prior years. Our bitcoin mining business is in its early stages, and bitcoin and energy pricing and bitcoin mining economics are volatile and subject to uncertainty. Our current strategy will continue to expose us to the numerous risks and volatility associated with the bitcoin mining and power generation sectors, including fluctuating bitcoin to U.S. dollar prices, the costs of bitcoin miners, the number of market participants mining bitcoin, the availability of other power generation facilities to expand operations and regulatory changes.
If, among other things, the price of bitcoin declines or mining economics become prohibitive, we could incur future losses. Such losses could be significant as we incur costs and expenses associated with recent investments and potential future acquisitions, as well as legal and administrative related expenses. While we are closely monitoring our cash balances, cash needs and expense levels, significant expense increases may not be offset by a corresponding increase in revenue or a significant decline in bitcoin prices could significantly impact our financial performance.
While we have multiple sources of revenue from our business and operations, these sources of revenue currently all depend on the single natural gas power generation facility that we operate. Any disruption to our single power plant would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations, as well as our results of operations and financial condition.
We operate a single source natural gas power generation facility that presently comprises and supports all of our business and operations. While we realize multiple sources of revenue from our business and operations, each
 
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current source of revenue is dependent on the continuing operation of our natural gas power generation facility in the Town of Torrey, New York. Power plants involve complex operations and equipment, much of which is subject to wear and tear in the normal course of operation. Further, equipment used in the operations of the power plant may also suffer breakdown or malfunction, physical disaster and sabotage. Substantially all of our power plant and bitcoin mining operations are operated with computer systems that may be subject to data security breaches, computer malfunction and viruses, and generally require continual software updates and maintenance. Repairing, replacing or otherwise fixing or addressing any of these or other issues may require the allocation of significant time, capital or other resources, such as technical capability, and during such period of time, we would be unable to operate our power plant and generate revenue. We may not have the adequate capital or other resources to fix or otherwise address these factors or issues in a timely manner or at all, and we may not have access to the necessary parts or equipment that are required to fix or otherwise address such factors or issues. Some of the parts and equipment necessary to operate the power plant may require long
lead-times
in order to acquire, either due to availability, production time or cycles, shipping or other factors, thereby making such parts or equipment difficult to acquire in a timely manner or on a cost-effective basis, if available at all. Any disruption to our single power plant would cause a suspension of revenue generating activity and would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations, as well as our results of operations and financial condition.
As the aggregate amount of computing power, or hash rate, in the bitcoin network increases, the amount of bitcoin earned per unit of hash rate decreases; as a result, in order to maintain our market share, we may have to incur significant capital expenditures in order to expand our fleet of miners.
The aggregate computing power of the global bitcoin network has generally grown over time and we expect it to continue to grow in the future. To the extent the global hash rate continues to increase, the market share of and the amount of bitcoin rewards paid to any fixed fleet of miners will decrease. Therefore, in order to maintain our market share, we may be required to expand our mining fleet, which may require significant capital expenditures. Such significant capital expenditures could have an adverse effect on our business operations, strategy and financial performance.
The properties utilized by us in our bitcoin mining operations may experience damage, including damage not covered by insurance.
Our current bitcoin mining operation in the Town of Torrey, New York is, and any future bitcoin mining operations that we establish will be, subject to a variety of risks relating to physical condition and operation, including:
 
   
the presence of construction or repair defects or other structural or building damage;
 
   
any noncompliance with or liabilities under applicable environmental, health or safety regulations or requirements or building permit requirements;
 
   
any damage resulting from natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods and windstorms;
 
   
damage caused by criminal actors, such as cyberattacks, vandalism, sabotage or terrorist attacks; and
 
   
claims by employees and others for injuries sustained at our properties.
Any of these could render our bitcoin mining operations and/or power generation inoperable, temporarily or permanently, and the potential impact on our business is currently magnified because we currently operate from a single location. The security and other measures we take to protect against these risks may be insufficient or unavailable. Our property insurance covers approximately $197 million per occurrence on plant, including business interruption, and $50 million for bitcoin mining equipment in all cases, subject to certain deductibles. Our insurance may not be adequate to cover the losses we suffer as a result of these risks, which could materially adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
 
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Our bitcoin may be subject to loss, theft or restriction on access.
We are subject to the risk that some or all of our bitcoin could be lost or stolen. Cryptocurrencies are stored in cryptocurrency sites commonly referred to as “wallets” which may be accessed to exchange a holder’s cryptocurrency assets. Access to our bitcoin assets could also be restricted by cybercrime (such as a denial of service attack) against a service at which we maintain a hosted hot wallet. A hot wallet refers to any cryptocurrency wallet that is connected to the Internet. In general, hot wallets are easier to set up and access than wallets in cold storage, but they are also more susceptible to hackers and other technical vulnerabilities. Cold storage refers to any cryptocurrency wallet that is not connected to the Internet. Cold storage wallets are generally more secure than hot wallets, but they are not ideal for quick or regular transactions, and we may experience lag time in our ability to respond to market fluctuations in the price of our bitcoin. We currently engage a third-party provider to hold our bitcoin in multi-signature cold storage wallets, and such third party provider maintains secure backups to reduce the risk of malfeasance, but the risk of loss of our bitcoin assets cannot be wholly eliminated. We utilize hot wallets on exchanges to liquidate daily bitcoin mining rewards (and amounts held in hot wallets are limited to one day’s worth of mining revenue, to mitigate risk of loss). Any restrictions on access to our hot wallets due to cybercrime or other reasons could limit our ability to convert bitcoin to cash.
Hackers or malicious actors may attempt to steal bitcoin, such as by attacking the bitcoin network source code, exchange miners, third-party platforms, cold and hot storage locations or software, our general computer systems or networks, or by other means. As we increase in size, we may become a more appealing target of hackers or other malicious actors. In addition, if in the future we hold more of our generated bitcoin long term for investment purposes, the threat of the loss of our bitcoin to hackers would become a more substantial risk and the potential for substantial losses would grow.
Bitcoin are controlled by the possessor of both the unique public and private keys relating to the local or online digital wallet in which they are held, which wallet’s public key or address is reflected in the network’s public blockchain. We publish the public key relating to digital wallets in use when we verify the receipt of transfers and disseminate such information into the network, but we will need to safeguard the private keys relating to such digital wallets. To the extent such private keys are lost, destroyed or otherwise compromised, we will be unable to access our bitcoin and such private keys may not be capable of being restored. Such events could materially adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
If bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies are determined to be investment securities, and we hold a significant portion of our assets in such cryptocurrency, investment securities or
non-controlling
equity interests of other entities, we may inadvertently violate the Investment Company Act. We could incur large losses to modify our operations to avoid the need to register as an investment company or could incur significant expenses to register as an investment company or could terminate operations altogether.
Under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), a company may be deemed an investment company if the value of our investment securities is more than 40% of our total assets (exclusive of government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis. At the present time, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) does not deem the bitcoin that we own, acquire or mine as an investment security, and we do not believe any of the bitcoin we own, acquire or mine to be securities. Additionally, we do not currently hold a significant portion of our assets in bitcoin. However, SEC rules and applicable law are subject to change, especially in the evolving world of cryptocurrency, and further, the Investment Company Act analysis may not be uniform across all forms of cryptocurrency that we might mine or hold.
If the SEC or other regulatory body were to determine that bitcoin, or any other cryptocurrency that we may mine or hold in the future, constitutes an investment security subject to the Investment Company Act, and if we were to hold a significant portion of our total assets in such bitcoin or other cryptocurrency as a result of our mining
 
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activities and/or in investments in which we do not have a controlling interest, the investment securities we hold could exceed 40% of our total assets, exclusive of cash items. Such a situation could be hastened if we choose to hold more of our mined bitcoin or other cryptocurrency rather than converting our mined bitcoin or cryptocurrency in significant part to U.S. dollars.
In such an event, we could determine that we have become an investment company. Limited exclusions are available under the Investment Company Act, including an exclusion granting an inadvertent investment company a
one-year
grace period from registration as an investment company. In that year, we would be required to take actions to cause the investment securities held by us to be less than 40% of our total assets, which could include acquiring assets with our cash and bitcoin or other cryptocurrency on hand, liquidating our investment securities or bitcoin or seeking a
no-action
letter from the SEC if we are unable to acquire sufficient assets or liquidate sufficient investment securities in a timely manner. Such actions could require significant cost, disruption to our operations or growth plans and diversion of management time and attention.
If we were unable to qualify for an exemption from registration as an investment company, or fail to take adequate steps within the
one-year
grace period for inadvertent investment companies, we would need to register with the SEC as an investment company under the Investment Company Act or cease almost all business, and our contracts would become voidable. Investment company registration is time consuming and would require a restructuring of our business. Moreover, the operation of an investment company is very costly and restrictive, as investment companies are subject to substantial regulation concerning management, operations, transactions with affiliated persons and portfolio composition, and Investment Company Act filing requirements. The cost of such compliance would result in us incurring substantial additional expenses, and the failure to register if required would have a materially adverse impact on our operations.
There has been limited precedent set for financial accounting of digital assets and so it is unclear how we will be required to account for digital asset transactions.
While we record digital assets as indefinite-lived intangible assets in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 350, there is currently no authoritative guidance under U.S. GAAP which specifically addresses the accounting for digital assets, including digital currencies.
We recognize bitcoin related revenue when bitcoins are earned. The receipt of bitcoins is generally recorded as revenue, using the spot price of a prominent exchange at the time of daily reward and bitcoins are recorded on the balance sheet at their cost basis and are reviewed for impairment annually.
A change in financial accounting standards or their interpretation could result in changes in accounting treatment applicable to our bitcoin business, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
If federal or state legislatures or agencies initiate or release tax determinations that change the classification of bitcoins as property for tax purposes (in the context of when such bitcoins are held as an investment), such determination could have a negative tax consequence on us.
Current IRS guidance indicates that digital assets such as bitcoin should be treated and taxed as property, and that transactions involving the payment of bitcoin for goods and services should be treated as barter transactions. While this treatment creates a potential tax reporting requirement for any circumstance where the ownership of a bitcoin passes from one person to another, usually by means of bitcoin transactions (including
off-blockchain
transactions), it preserves the right to apply capital gains treatment to those transactions which may adversely affect our results of operations.
 
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Risk Related to Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Industry
Regulatory changes or actions may alter the nature of an investment in us or restrict the use of bitcoin in a manner that adversely affects our business, prospects or operations.
As bitcoin and cryptocurrencies generally have grown in both popularity and market size, governments around the world have reacted differently to them; certain governments have deemed them illegal, and others have allowed their use and trade without restriction. Based on stated efforts to curtail energy usage on mining, to protect investors or to prevent criminal activity, and in part to redirect interest into competing government-created cryptocurrencies, recent regulations have proliferated. In March 2021, a new law was proposed in India to criminalize the mining, transferring or holding of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, and current rules require extensive disclosure to the government of cryptocurrency holdings. At the same time, India is rumored to be developing its own centralized national digital currency. Similarly, China has also limited some mining and trading, although not possession, of cryptocurrency, ostensibly to reduce energy usage in a country representing an estimated 65% of bitcoin mining, but reports suggest such regulation is also designed, in part, to drive appetite for China’s own digital yuan. On April 16, 2021, Turkey imposed bans on the use of cryptocurrency as payment and now requires transactions of a certain size to be reported to a government agency in the wake of alleged fraud at one of Turkey’s largest exchanges. In addition, in May 2021, Iran announced a temporary ban on cryptocurrency mining as a way to reduce energy consumption amid power blackouts. Many jurisdictions, such as the United States, subject bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to extensive, and in some cases overlapping, unclear and evolving regulatory requirements. Further, in January 2021, Russia adopted legislation to identify cryptocurrency as a digital asset and legitimize its trading, but also prohibit its use as a payment method; mining operations have also grown significantly in Russia since this time. Such varying government regulations and pronouncements are likely to continue for the near future.
In the U.S., the Federal Reserve Board, U.S. Congress and certain U.S. agencies (e.g., the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, the SEC, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the U.S. Treasury Department (“FinCEN”), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation) have begun to examine the operations of the bitcoin network, bitcoin users and the bitcoin exchange market. Increasing regulation and regulatory scrutiny may result in new costs for us and our management having to devote increased time and attention to regulatory matters, change aspects of our business or result in limits on the use cases of bitcoin. In addition, regulatory developments and/or our business activities may require us to comply with certain regulatory regimes. For example, to the extent that our activities cause us to be deemed a money service business under the regulations promulgated by FinCEN under the authority of the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act, we may be required to comply with FinCEN regulations, including those that would mandate us to implement certain anti-money laundering programs, make certain reports to FinCEN and maintain certain records.
Ongoing and future regulation and regulatory actions could significantly restrict or eliminate the market for or uses of bitcoin and/or materially and adversely impact our results of operation and financial condition.
We are subject to risks related to Internet disruptions, which could have an adverse effect on our ability to mine bitcoin.
In general, bitcoin and our business of mining bitcoin is dependent upon the Internet. A significant disruption in Internet connectivity could disrupt a currency’s network operations and have an adverse effect on the price of bitcoin and our ability to mine bitcoin, which could, depending on the duration of the disruption, materially and adversely impact our results of operations.
Our future success will depend significantly on the price of bitcoin, which is subject to risk and has historically been subject to wide swings and significant volatility.
Our operating results will depend significantly on the price of bitcoin. Specifically, our revenues from our bitcoin mining operations are based principally on two factors: (1) our mining payouts from our third-party mining pools; and (2) the price of bitcoin. Accordingly, a decrease in the price of bitcoin will result in a decrease in our
 
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revenues. Moreover, the price of bitcoin has historically been subject to wide swings and significant volatility. This means that our operating results may be subject to significant volatility.
Bitcoin prices have historically been volatile and impacted by a variety of factors, including market perception, the degree to which bitcoin is accepted as a means of payment, the volume of purchases and sales of bitcoin by market participants, real or perceived competition from alternative cryptocurrencies as well as those factors discussed in this section “
Risk Factors
.”
We may not be able to compete effectively against other companies, some of whom have greater resources and experience.
We may not be able to compete effectively against present or future competitors. The bitcoin industry has attracted various high-profile and well-established competitors, some of whom have substantially greater liquidity and financial resources than us. With the limited resources we have available, we may experience great difficulties in expanding and improving our network of computers to remain competitive. In addition, new ways for investors and market participants to invest in bitcoin and cryptocurrencies continue to develop, and we may be adversely affected by competition from other methods of investing in bitcoin. Competition from existing and future competitors, particularly those that have access to competitively priced energy, could result in our inability to secure acquisitions and partnerships and to successfully execute our business plan. If we are unable compete effectively, our business could be negatively affected.
The impact of geopolitical and economic events on the supply and demand for bitcoin is uncertain.
Geopolitical crises may motivate large-scale purchases of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, which could increase the price of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies rapidly. This may increase the likelihood of a subsequent price decrease as crisis-driven purchasing behavior dissipates. Such risks are similar to the risks of purchasing commodities in uncertain times, such as the risk of purchasing, holding or selling gold. Alternatively, as cryptocurrencies are an emerging asset class, global crises and general economic downturns may discourage investment in bitcoin as investors could focus their investment on less volatile asset classes as a means of hedging their investment risk.
Bitcoin is subject to supply and demand forces. How such supply and demand will be impacted by geopolitical events is largely uncertain but could be harmful to us and our shareholders.
Bitcoin miners and other necessary hardware are subject to malfunction, technological obsolescence, the global supply chain and difficulty and cost in obtaining new hardware.
Our bitcoin miners are subject to malfunctions and normal wear and tear, and, at any point in time, a certain number of our bitcoin miners are typically
off-line
for maintenance or repair. The physical degradation of our miners will require us to replace miners that are no longer functional. Because we utilize many units of the same bitcoin miner models, if there is a model wide component malfunction whether in the hardware or the software that powers these miners, the percentage of offline miners could increase substantially, disrupting our operations. Any major bitcoin miner malfunction out of the typical range of downtime for normal maintenance and repair could cause significant economic damage to us.
Additionally, as technology evolves, we may need to acquire newer models of miners to remain competitive in the market. New miners can be costly and may be in short supply. Given the long production period to manufacture and assemble bitcoin miners and the current global semiconductor chip shortage, there can be no assurance that we can acquire enough bitcoin mining computers or replacement parts on a cost-effective basis – or at all – for the maintenance and expansion of our bitcoin mining operations. We rely on third parties, principally located in China, to supply us with bitcoin miners and shortages of bitcoin miners or their component parts, material increases in bitcoin miner costs, or delays in delivery of our orders, including due to trade
 
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restrictions and
COVID-19
supply chain disruptions, could significantly interrupt our plans for expanding our bitcoin mining capacity in the near term and future.
Bitmain, a provider of bitcoin miners, adjusts its prices based on bitcoin mining revenues, so the cost of new machines is unpredictable but could be extremely high. As a result, at times, we may obtain Bitmain miners and other hardware from third parties at premium prices, to the extent they are available. Due to high demand and the limited number of suppliers, we must identify miners on terms we find attractive, negotiate to lock in the purchase and price and wait for delivery. As we wait for such miner delivery, we bear the risk of bitcoin price decreases and mining difficulty increases. Meanwhile, our competitors may be receiving and installing miners purchased at lower cost.
This upgrading and replacement process requires substantial capital investment and we may face challenges in doing so on a timely and cost-effective basis. Shortages of bitcoin mining computers could result in reduced bitcoin mining capacity and increased operating costs, which could materially delay the completion of our planned bitcoin mining capacity expansion and put us at a competitive disadvantage.
We face risks and disruptions related to the
COVID-19
pandemic and supply chain issues, including in semiconductors and other necessary mining components, which could significantly impact our operations and financial results.
Our business was adversely impacted by the effects of the
COVID-19
pandemic, in particular as a result of a decline in energy prices and the availability of bitcoin miners, and may continue to be adversely impacted in the future.
The
COVID-19
pandemic outbreak has and may continue to adversely affect the economies of many countries, resulting in an economic downturn that may have an adverse effect on financial markets, energy and bitcoin prices, the demand for bitcoin and other factors that could impact our operating results.
China has also limited the shipment of certain products in and out of its borders, which could negatively impact our ability to receive bitcoin mining equipment from our China-based suppliers. Our third-party manufacturers, suppliers,
sub-contractors
and customers have been disrupted by worker absenteeism, quarantines, restrictions on employees’ ability to work, office and factory closures, disruptions to ports and other shipping infrastructure, border closures, or other travel or health-related restrictions. Depending on the magnitude of such effects on our supply chain, shipments of parts for our existing miners, as well as any new miners we purchase, may be delayed. As our miners require repair or become obsolete and require replacement, our ability to obtain adequate replacements or repair parts from our manufacturer may therefore be hampered. Supply chain disruptions could therefore negatively impact our operations.
In addition, multiple factors including some related to the
COVID-19
pandemic have created a global semiconductor shortage. Since the inception of the pandemic, factory shutdowns and limitations due to employee illness or public health requirements have significantly slowed output, while global demand for products requiring chips increased. These 2020-2021 challenges worsened a
pre-existing
semiconductor and other supply shortage. Semiconductor supply has not yet rebounded, and manufacturers across all industries are waiting and driving up demand and costs. While we have already purchased the bitcoin miners for our 2021 plans, any delay or disruption in delivery of these purchased miners, or future miners necessary for our success and growth, may have a material and negative impact on our results of operations.
We may not adequately respond to rapidly changing technology.
Competitive conditions within the bitcoin industry require that we use sophisticated technology in the operation of our business. The industry for blockchain technology is characterized by rapid technological changes, new product developments and evolving industry standards. New technologies, techniques or products could emerge that offer better performance than the software and other technologies that we utilize, and we may have to transition to these new technologies to remain competitive. We may not be successful in implementing new
 
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technology or doing so in a cost-effective manner. During the course of implementing any such new technology into our operations, we may experience system interruptions. Furthermore, there can be no assurances that we will recognize, in a timely manner or at all, the benefits that we may expect as a result of our implementing new technology into our operations. As a result, our results of operations may suffer.
A failure to properly monitor and upgrade the bitcoin network protocol could damage the bitcoin network which could, in turn, have an adverse effect on our business.
The open-source structure of the bitcoin network protocol means that the contributors to the protocol are generally not directly compensated for their contributions in maintaining and developing the protocol. As the bitcoin network protocol is not sold and its use does not generate revenues for contributors, contributors are generally not compensated for maintaining and updating the bitcoin network protocol. The lack of guaranteed financial incentive for contributors to maintain or develop the bitcoin network and the lack of guaranteed resources to adequately address emerging issues with the bitcoin network may reduce incentives to address issues adequately or in a timely manner. Because our mining activities rely on the bitcoin network, negative developments with respect to that network may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Over time, incentives for bitcoin miners to continue to contribute processing power to the bitcoin network may transition from a set reward to transaction fees. If the incentives for bitcoin mining are not sufficiently high, we may not have an adequate incentive to continue to mine.
In general, as the number of bitcoin rewards awarded for solving a block in a blockchain decreases, our ability to achieve profitability also decreases. Decreased use and demand for bitcoin rewards may adversely affect our incentive to expend processing power to solve blocks. If the bitcoin rewards for solving blocks and transaction fees are not sufficiently high, fewer bitcoin miners will mine. At insufficiently attractive rewards, our costs of operations in total may exceed our revenues from bitcoin mining.
To incentivize bitcoin miners to continue to contribute processing power to the bitcoin network, such network may either formally or informally transition from a set reward to transaction fees earned upon solving for a block. This transition could be accomplished either by bitcoin miners independently electing to record in the blocks they solve only those transactions that include payment of a transaction fee or by the bitcoin network adopting software upgrades that require the payment of a minimum transaction fee for all transactions. If as a result transaction fees paid for bitcoin transactions become too high, bitcoin users may be reluctant to transfer bitcoin or accept bitcoin as a means of payment, and existing users may be motivated to hold existing bitcoin and switch from bitcoin to another digital asset or back to fiat currency for transactions, diminishing the aggregate amount of available transaction fees for bitcoin miners. Such reduction would adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
Incorrect or fraudulent cryptocurrency transactions may be irreversible.
It is possible that, through computer or human error, theft or criminal action, our cryptocurrency could be transferred in incorrect amounts or to unauthorized third parties or accounts. In general, cryptocurrency transactions are irrevocable, and stolen or incorrectly transferred cryptocurrencies may be irretrievable, and we may have extremely limited or no effective means of recovering such cryptocurrencies. As a result, any incorrectly executed or fraudulent bitcoin transactions could adversely affect our business.
The bitcoin reward for successfully uncovering a block will halve several times in the future, and bitcoin value may not adjust to compensate us for the reduction in the rewards we receive from our bitcoin mining efforts.
Halving is a process designed to control the overall supply and reduce the risk of inflation in cryptocurrencies using a proof of work consensus algorithm. At a predetermined block, the bitcoin mining reward is cut in half, hence the term “halving.” For bitcoin, the reward was initially set at 50 bitcoin currency rewards per block and
 
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this was cut in half to 25 on November 28, 2012 at block 210,000, then again to 12.5 on July 9, 2016 at block 420,000. The most recent halving for bitcoin occurred on May 11, 2020 at block 630,000 and the reward was reduced to 6.25. It is expected that the next halving will likely occur in 2024. This process will reoccur until the total amount of bitcoin currency rewards issued reaches 21 million, which is expected around the year 2140. Bitcoin has had a history of price fluctuations around the halving of its rewards, and there can be no assurance that any price change will be favorable or would compensate for the reduction in bitcoin mining reward in connection with a halving. If the award of bitcoin or a proportionate decrease in bitcoin mining difficulty does not follow these anticipated halving events, the revenue we earn from our bitcoin mining operations would see a corresponding decrease, and we may not have an adequate incentive to continue bitcoin mining.
We may not be able to realize the benefits of forks, and forks in a digital asset network may occur in the future which may affect the value of bitcoin held by us.
To the extent that a significant majority of users and miners on a cryptocurrency network install software that changes the cryptocurrency network or properties of a cryptocurrency, including the irreversibility of transactions and limitations on the mining of new cryptocurrency, the cryptocurrency network would be subject to new protocols and software. However, if less than a significant majority of users and miners on the cryptocurrency network consent to the proposed modification, and the modification is not compatible with the software prior to its modification, a “fork” of the network would occur, with one prong of the network running the
pre-modified
software and the other running the modified software. The effect of such a fork would be the existence of two versions of the cryptocurrency running in parallel, yet lacking interchangeability and necessitating exchange-type transaction to convert currencies between the two forks. After a fork, it may be unclear which fork represents the original asset and which is the new asset.
If we hold bitcoin at the time of a hard fork into two cryptocurrencies, industry standards would dictate that we would be expected to hold an equivalent amount of the old and new assets following the fork. However, we may not be able to secure or realize the economic benefit of the new asset. Our business may be adversely impacted by forks in the bitcoin network.
The further development and acceptance of digital asset networks and other digital assets, which represent a new and rapidly changing industry, are subject to a variety of factors that are difficult to evaluate. The slowing or stopping of the development or acceptance of digital asset systems may adversely affect an investment in us.
The use of cryptocurrencies to, among other things, buy and sell goods and services and complete transactions, is part of a new and rapidly evolving industry that employs cryptocurrency assets, including bitcoin, based upon a computer-generated mathematical and/or cryptographic protocol. Large-scale acceptance of bitcoin as a means of payment has not, and may never, occur. The growth of this industry in general, and the use of bitcoin in particular, is subject to a high degree of uncertainty, and the slowing or stopping of the development or acceptance of developing protocols may occur unpredictably. The factors include, but are not limited to:
 
   
continued worldwide growth in the adoption and use of bitcoin as a medium to exchange;
 
   
governmental and quasi-governmental regulation of bitcoin and its use, or restrictions on or regulation of access to and operation of the bitcoin network or similar cryptocurrency systems;
 
   
changes in consumer demographics and public tastes and preferences;
 
   
the maintenance and development of the open-source software protocol of the network;
 
   
the increased consolidation of contributors to the bitcoin blockchain through bitcoin mining pools;
 
   
the availability and popularity of other cryptocurrencies and other forms or methods of buying and selling goods and services, including new means of using fiat currencies;
 
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the use of the networks supporting cryptocurrencies for developing smart contracts and distributed applications;
 
   
general economic conditions and the regulatory environment relating to cryptocurrencies;
 
   
environmental restrictions on the use of electricity to mine bitcoin and a resulting decrease in global bitcoin mining operations;
 
   
an increase in bitcoin transaction costs and a resultant reduction in the use of and demand for bitcoin; and
 
   
negative consumer sentiment and perception of bitcoin specifically and cryptocurrencies generally.
The outcome of any of these factors could have negative effects on our results of operations and financial condition.
It is possible that cryptocurrencies other than bitcoin could have features that make them more desirable to a material portion of the cryptocurrency user base and this could result in a reduction in demand for bitcoin, which could have a negative impact on the price of bitcoin and adversely affect us.
Bitcoin holds a
“first-to-market”
advantage over other cryptocurrencies. This
first-to-market
advantage is driven in large part by having the largest user base and, more importantly, the largest combined mining power in use to secure their respective blockchains and transaction verification systems. More users and miners makes a cryptocurrency more secure, which makes it more attractive to new users and miners, resulting in a network effect that strengthens this
first-to-market
advantage.
Despite the
first-to-market
advantage of the bitcoin network over other cryptocurrency networks, it is possible that another cryptocurrency could become comparatively more popular. If an alternative cryptocurrency obtains significant market share—either in market capitalization, mining power or use as a payment technology—this could reduce bitcoin’s market share and value. Substantially all of our mining revenue is derived from mining bitcoin and, while we may mine other cryptocurrencies in the future, we have no plans to do so currently and may incur significant costs if we choose to do so. For example, our current application-specific integrated circuit machines (i.e., our “miners”) are principally utilized for mining bitcoin and cannot mine other cryptocurrencies that are not mined utilizing the
SHA-256
algorithm. As a result, the emergence of a cryptocurrency that erodes bitcoin’s market share and value could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We may be adversely affected by competition from other methods of investing in bitcoin.
We compete with other users and/or companies that are mining bitcoin or providing investors exposure to bitcoin without direct purchases of bitcoin and with other potential financial vehicles linked to cryptocurrency, including securities backed by or linked to bitcoin through entities similar to it. Market and financial conditions, and other conditions beyond our control, may make it more attractive to invest in such other entities, or to invest in bitcoin or other cryptocurrency directly, as opposed to investing in us. Conversely, given the nascence of cryptocurrency market within the broader investment market, investors may associate entities involved in cryptocurrency mining, trading or related services with each other, and thus, public reports of challenges at any of such other entities may have a negative impact on our business. Finally, the emergence of other financial vehicles and exchange-traded funds have been scrutinized by regulators and such scrutiny and any negative impressions or conclusions resulting from such scrutiny could be applicable to us and impact our business. Such circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to momentum pricing risk.
Momentum pricing typically is associated with growth stocks and other assets whose valuation, as determined by the investing public, accounts for anticipated future appreciation in value. Cryptocurrency market prices are
 
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determined primarily using data from various exchanges,
over-the-counter
markets, and derivative platforms. Momentum pricing may have resulted, and may continue to result, in speculation regarding future appreciation in the value of cryptocurrencies and bitcoin in particular, inflating and making their market prices more volatile. As a result, they may be more likely to fluctuate in value due to changing investor confidence in future appreciation (or depreciation) in their market prices, which could adversely affect the value of bitcoin mined by us, which could lead to an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our reliance on third-party mining pool service providers for our mining payouts may have a negative impact on our business.
We use third–party mining pools to receive our mining rewards from the network. Mining pools allow miners to combine their processing power, increasing their chances of solving a block and getting paid by the network. The rewards are distributed by the pool operator, proportionally to our contribution to the pool’s overall mining power used to generate each block. Should a pool operator’s system suffer downtime for any reason, including, as a result of a cyber-attack, software malfunction or other similar issues for any reason, it would negatively impact our ability to receive revenue. Furthermore, we are dependent on the accuracy of the mining pool operator’s record keeping to accurately record the total processing power provided to the pool for a given bitcoin mining application in order to assess the proportion of that total processing power we provided. While we have internal methods of tracking both our power provided and the total used by the pool, the mining pool operator uses our own record-keeping to determine our proportion of a given reward. We have little means of recourse against the mining pool operator if we determine the proportion of the reward paid out to us by the mining pool operator is incorrect, other than leaving the pool. If we are unable to consistently obtain accurate proportionate rewards from our mining pool operators, we may experience reduced reward for our efforts, which would have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Banks and financial institutions may not provide bank accounts, or may cut off certain banking or other financial services, to cryptocurrency investors or businesses that engage in bitcoin-related activities or that accept bitcoin as payment.
A number of companies that engage in bitcoin and/or other cryptocurrency-related activities have been unable to find banks or financial institutions that are willing to provide them with bank accounts and other services. Similarly, changing governmental regulations about the legality of transferring or holding bitcoin and other cryptocurrency may prompt other banks and financial institutions to close existing bank accounts or discontinue banking or other financial services to such companies in the cryptocurrency industry, or even investors with accounts for transferring, receiving or holding their cryptocurrency. Specifically, China already restricts financial institutions from holding, trading or facilitating transactions in bitcoin. Similarly, other countries have proposed cryptocurrency legislation that could have a significant impact on the ability to utilize banking services in such countries for cryptocurrency. Both India and China, among other countries, are reportedly driving toward the development and adoption of a national digital currency—and taking legislative action that could be viewed as disadvantaging to private cryptocurrencies in the process.
Should such rules and restrictions continue or proliferate, we may not only be unable to obtain or maintain these services for our business but also experience business disruption if our necessary commercial partners, such as bitcoin mining pools or miner manufacturers, cannot conduct their businesses effectively due to such regulations. The difficulty that many businesses that provide bitcoin and/or derivatives on other cryptocurrency-related activities have and may continue to have in finding banks and financial institutions willing to provide them services may diminish the usefulness of bitcoin as a payment system and harm public perception of bitcoin. If we are unable to obtain or maintain banking services for our business as a result of our bitcoin-related activities, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
 
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Blockchain technology may expose us to specially designated nationals or blocked persons or cause us to violate provisions of law.
We are subject to the rules enforced by The Office of Financial Assets Control of the US Department of Treasury (“OFAC”), including regarding sanctions and requirements not to conduct business with persons named on its specially designated nationals list. However, because of the pseudonymous nature of blockchain transactions, we may inadvertently and without our knowledge engage in transactions with persons named on OFAC’S specially designated nationals list.
Risks Related to our Power Generation Operations
Our operations and financial performance may be impacted by fuel supply disruptions, price fluctuations in the wholesale power and natural gas markets, and fluctuations in other market factors that are beyond our control.
Our power generation depends on our purchases of fuel and other products consumed during the production of electricity from a number of suppliers. Our operations and financial performance generally may be impacted by changes in the supply of fuel and other required products, price fluctuations in the wholesale power and natural gas markets, and other market factors beyond our control.
Delivery of these fuels to our facilities is dependent upon fuel transmission or transportation infrastructure, storage and inventory of fuel stocks, as well as the continuing financial viability of contractual counterparties. As a result, we are subject to the risks of disruptions or curtailments in the production of power at our generation facility if fuel is limited or unavailable at any price, if a counterparty fails to perform, or if there is a disruption in the fuel delivery infrastructure. Disruption in the delivery of fuel, including disruptions as a result of weather, transportation difficulties, global demand and supply dynamics, labor relations, environmental regulations or the financial viability of fuel suppliers, could adversely affect our ability to operate our facilities, which could result in lower power sales and/or higher costs to our bitcoin mining operations and thereby adversely affect our results of operations.
Separate from supply, market prices for power, capacity, ancillary services, natural gas, and oil are volatile, unpredictable and tend to fluctuate substantially. Disruptions in our fuel supplies may require us to find alternative fuel sources at higher costs, to find other sources of power to deliver to counterparties at a higher cost, or to pay damages to counterparties for failure to deliver power as contracted. Unlike most other commodities, electric power can only be stored on a very limited basis and generally must be produced concurrently with its use. As a result, power prices and our costs are subject to significant volatility due to supply and demand imbalances, especially in the
day-ahead
and spot markets. We buy significant quantities of fuel on a short-term or spot market basis. Prices for the natural gas that we purchase fluctuate, sometimes rising or falling significantly over a relatively short period of time. The price we can obtain for the sale of power may not rise at the same rate, or may not rise at all, to match a rise in fuel or delivery costs. Further, any changes in the costs of natural gas or transportation rates, changes in the relationship between such costs and the market prices of power, or an inability to procure fuel for physical delivery at prices that we consider favorable could all adversely affect our operations, the costs of meeting our obligations, and the profitability of our bitcoin mining, and thus, our operations and financial performance. Volatility in market prices for fuel and electricity may result from a number of factors outside of our control, including:
 
   
changes in generation capacity in our markets, including the addition of new supplies of power as a result of the development of new plants, expansion of existing plants, the continued operation of uneconomic power plants due to state subsidies, or additional transmission capacity;
 
   
disruption to, changes in or other constraints or inefficiencies of electricity, fuel or natural gas transmission or transportation;
 
   
electric supply disruptions, including plant outages and transmission disruptions;
 
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changes in market liquidity;
 
   
weather conditions, including extreme weather conditions and seasonal fluctuations, including the effects of climate change;
 
   
changes in commodity prices and the supply of commodities, including but not limited to natural gas and oil;
 
   
changes in the demand for power or in patterns of power usage, including the potential development of demand-side management tools and practices, distributed generation, and more efficient
end-use
technologies;
 
   
development of new fuels, new technologies and new forms of competition for the production of power;
 
   
fuel price volatility;
 
   
changes in capacity prices and capacity markets.
 
   
federal, state and foreign governmental environmental, energy and other regulation and legislation, including changes therein and judicial decisions interpreting such regulations and legislation;
 
   
the creditworthiness and liquidity of fuel suppliers and/or transporters and their willingness to do business with us; and
 
   
general economic and political conditions.
Such factors and the associated fluctuations in power and natural gas prices have affected our wholesale power generation profitability and cost of power for bitcoin mining activities in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
Changes in technology may negatively impact the value of our Town of Torrey, New York power plant and any future power plants.
Research and development activities are ongoing in the industry to provide alternative and more efficient technologies to produce power. There are alternate technologies to supply electricity, most notably fuel cells, micro turbines, batteries, windmills and photovoltaic (solar) cells, the development of which are currently being subsidized and expanded by the State of New York, where we currently operate (as well as by state or local governments in areas where we may operate in the future), to address global climate change concerns. It is possible that technological advances will reduce the cost of alternative generation to a level that is equal to or below that of certain central station production. Also, as new technologies are developed and become available, the quantity and pattern of electricity usage by customers could decline, with a corresponding decline in revenues derived by generators. These alternative energy sources could result in a decline to the dispatch and capacity factors of our power plant located in the town of Torrey, New York. As a result of these factors, the value of our generation facilities could be significantly reduced.
We sell capacity, energy and ancillary services to the wholesale power grid managed by the NYISO. Our business may be affected by the actions of nearby states or other governmental actors in the competitive wholesale marketplace.
We sell capacity, energy and ancillary services to the wholesale power grid managed by the NYISO. The competitive wholesale marketplace may be impacted by
out-of-market
subsidies provided by states or state entities, including bailouts of uneconomic nuclear plants, imports of power from Canada, renewable mandates or subsidies, mandates to sell power below our cost of acquisition and associated costs, as well as
out-of-market
payments to new or existing generators. These
out-of-market
subsidies to existing or new generation undermine the competitive wholesale marketplace, which can lead to decreased energy market revenues or premature
 
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retirement of existing facilities, including those owned by us. If these measures continue, capacity and energy prices may be suppressed, and we may not be successful in our efforts to insulate the competitive market from this interference. Our wholesale power revenue may be materially impacted by rules or regulations that allow regulated utilities to participate in competitive wholesale markets or to own and operate rate-regulated facilities that provide capacity, energy and ancillary services that could be provided by competitive market participants.
The availability and cost of emission allowances could adversely impact our costs of operations.
We are required to maintain, through either allocations or purchases, sufficient emission allowances for SO2, CO2 and NOx to support our operations in the ordinary course of operating our power generation facilities. These allowances are used to meet the obligations imposed on us by various applicable environmental laws. If our operational needs require more than our allocated allowances, we may be forced to purchase such allowances on the open market, which could be costly. If we are unable to maintain sufficient emission allowances to match our operational needs, we may have to curtail our operations so as not to exceed our available emission allowances or install costly new emission controls. As we use the emission allowances that we have purchased on the open market, costs associated with such purchases will be recognized as operating expense. If such allowances are available for purchase, but only at significantly higher prices, the purchase of such allowances could materially increase our costs of operations in the affected markets.
Our financial performance could be materially and adversely affected if energy market participants continue to construct additional generation facilities (i.e.,
new-build)
or expand or enhance existing generation facilities despite relatively low power prices and such additional generation capacity results in a reduction in wholesale power prices or more competition from bitcoin mining competitors with access to cheaper supplies of electricity.
Given the overall attractiveness of the markets in which we operate, and certain tax benefits associated with renewable energy, among other matters, energy market participants have continued to construct new generation facilities (
i.e.
,
new-build)
or invest in enhancements or expansions of existing generation facilities despite relatively low wholesale power prices. If this market dynamic continues, and/or if our bitcoin mining competitors begin to build or acquire their own power plants to fuel their bitcoin mining operations, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected if such additional generation capacity results in a cheaper supply of electricity to our bitcoin mining competitors or lower prices at which we sell capacity, energy or ancillary services to the wholesale power grid.
Maintenance, expansion and refurbishment of power generation facilities involve significant risks that could result in unplanned power outages or reduced output and could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Our facilities require periodic maintenance and repair. Any unexpected failure, including failure associated with breakdowns or forced outages, and any related unanticipated capital expenditures could result in reduced profitability from both loss of bitcoin mining operations and power generation. Such unexpected outages have occurred in the past, and may occur in the future, due to factors both within and outside of our control. We can give no assurances that outages involving our power plant will not occur in the future, or that any such outage would not have a negative effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, we cannot be certain of the level of capital expenditures that will be required due to changing environmental laws (including changes in the interpretation or enforcement thereof), needed facility repairs and unexpected events (such as natural disasters or terrorist attacks). Unexpected capital expenditures could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and financial condition. If we significantly modify power generation equipment, we may be required to install the best available control technology or to achieve the lowest achievable emission rates as such terms are defined under the new source review provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1963, which would likely result in substantial additional capital expenditures.
 
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Operation of power generation facilities involves significant risks and hazards that could disrupt or have a material adverse effect on our revenues and results of operations, and we may not have adequate insurance to cover these risks and hazards. Our employees, contractors, customers and the general public may be exposed to a risk of injury due to the nature of our operations.
The conduct of our operations, including operation of our power plant, information technology systems and other assets is subject to a variety of inherent risks. These risks include the breakdown or failure of equipment, accidents, potential physical injury, hazardous spills and exposures, fires, property damage, security breaches, viruses or outages affecting information technology systems, labor disputes, obsolescence, delivery/ transportation problems and disruptions of fuel supply, performance below expected levels or other financial liability, and may be caused to or by employees, customers, contractors, vendors, contractual or financial counterparties, other third parties, weather events or acts of God.
Operational disruptions or similar events may impact our ability to conduct our businesses efficiently and lead to increased costs, expenses or losses. Planned and unplanned outages at our power plants may require us to curtail operation of the plant. Any reduced power supply could also have a negative impact on the cost structure of our bitcoin mining operations.
These and other hazards can cause significant personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property, plant and equipment, contamination of, or damage to, the environment and suspension of operations. Further, the employees and contractors of our operating affiliates work in, and customers and the general public may be exposed to, potentially dangerous environments at or near our operations. As a result, employees, contractors, customers and the general public are at risk for serious injury, including loss of life.
The occurrence of one or more of these events may result in us or our affiliates being named as a defendant in lawsuits asserting claims for substantial damages, including for environmental cleanup costs, personal injury and property damage and fines and/or penalties. We maintain an amount of insurance protection that we consider adequate, but we cannot provide any assurance that our insurance will be sufficient or effective under all circumstances and against all hazards or liabilities to which we may be subject and, even if we do have insurance coverage for a particular circumstance, we may be subject to a large deductible and maximum cap. A successful claim for which we are not fully insured could hurt our financial results and materially harm our financial condition. Further, due to rising insurance costs and changes in the insurance markets, we cannot provide any assurance that our insurance coverage will continue to be available at all or at rates or on terms similar to those presently available. Any losses not covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Our business is subject to substantial energy regulation and may be adversely affected by legislative or regulatory changes relating to climate change or policies regarding cryptocurrency mining, as well as liability under, or any future inability to comply with, existing or future energy regulations or requirements.
Our business is subject to extensive U.S. federal, state and local laws. Compliance with, or changes to, the requirements under these legal and regulatory regimes may cause us to incur significant additional costs or adversely impact our ability to continue operations as usual or compete on favorable terms with competitors. Failure to comply with such requirements could result in the shutdown of a
non-complying
facility, the imposition of liens, fines, and/or civil or criminal liability and or costly litigations before the agencies and/or in state of federal court. Changes to these laws and regulations could result in temporary or permanent restrictions on certain operations at our facilities, including power generation or use in connection with cryptocurrency mining, and compliance with, or opposing such regulation, may be costly.
The regulatory environment has undergone significant changes in the last several years due to state and federal policies affecting wholesale competition and the creation of incentives for the addition of large amounts of new renewable generation and, in some cases, transmission. These changes are ongoing, and we cannot predict the
 
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future design of the wholesale power markets or the ultimate effect that the changing regulatory environment will have on our business. In addition, in some of these markets, interested parties have proposed material market design changes, including the elimination of a single clearing price mechanism, as well as proposals to reinstate the vertically-integrated monopoly model of utility ownership or to require divestiture by generating companies to reduce their market share. If competitive restructuring of the electric power markets is reversed, discontinued, delayed or materially altered, our business prospects and financial results could be negatively impacted. In addition, since 2010, there have been a number of reforms to the regulation of the derivatives markets, both in the United States and internationally. These regulations, and any further changes thereto, or adoption of additional regulations, including any regulations relating to position limits on futures and other derivatives or margin for derivatives, could negatively impact our ability to hedge our portfolio in an efficient, cost-effective manner by, among other things, potentially decreasing liquidity in the forward commodity and derivatives markets or limiting our ability to utilize
non-cash
collateral for derivatives transactions.
Obtaining and complying with required government permits and approvals may be time-consuming and costly.
We and our affiliates are required to obtain, and to comply with, numerous permits and licenses from federal, state and local governmental agencies. The process of obtaining and renewing necessary permits and licenses can be lengthy and complex, requiring up to months or years for approval depending on the nature of the permit or license and such process could be further complicated or extended in the event regulations change. In addition, obtaining such permit or license can sometimes result in the establishment of conditions that create a significant ongoing impact to the nature or costs of operations or even make the project or activity for which the permit or license was sought unprofitable or otherwise unattractive. In addition, such permits or licenses may be subject to denial, revocation or modification under various circumstances. Failure to obtain or comply with the conditions of permits or licenses, or failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations, may result in the delay or temporary suspension of our operations and electricity sales or the curtailment of our delivery of electricity to our customers and may subject us to penalties and other sanctions. Although various regulators routinely renew existing permits and licenses, renewal of our existing permits or licenses could be denied or jeopardized by various factors, including failure to provide adequate financial assurance for closure, failure to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations or permit conditions, local community, political or other opposition and executive, legislative or regulatory action.
Our inability to procure and comply with the permits and licenses required for these operations, or the cost to us of such procurement or compliance, could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, new environmental legislation or regulations, if enacted, or changed interpretations of existing laws, may cause activities at our facilities to need to be changed to avoid violating applicable laws and regulations or eliciting claims that historical activities at our facilities violated applicable laws and regulations. In addition to the possible imposition of fines in the case of any such violations, we may be required to undertake significant capital investments and obtain additional operating permits or licenses, which could have a material adverse effect on us.
Our cost of compliance with existing and new environmental laws could have a material adverse effect on us.
We and our affiliates are subject to extensive environmental regulation by governmental authorities, including the United States Environmental Protection Agency (the “EPA”), and state environmental agencies and/or attorneys general. We may incur significant additional costs beyond those currently contemplated to comply with these regulatory requirements. If we fail to comply with these regulatory requirements, we could be forced to reduce or discontinue operations or become subject to administrative, civil or criminal liabilities and fines. Existing environmental regulations could be revised or reinterpreted, new laws and regulations could be adopted or become applicable to us or our facilities, and future changes in environmental laws and regulations could occur, including potential regulatory and enforcement developments related to air emissions, all of which could result in significant additional costs beyond those currently contemplated to comply with existing requirements. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on results of operations and financial condition.
 
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The EPA has recently finalized or proposed several regulatory actions establishing new requirements for control of certain emissions from certain sources, including electricity generation facilities. In the future, the EPA may also propose and finalize additional regulatory actions that may adversely affect our existing generation facilities or our ability to cost-effectively develop new generation facilities. There is no assurance that the currently installed emissions control equipment at the natural
gas-fueled
generation facilities owned and operated by us will satisfy the requirements under any future EPA or state environmental regulations. Future federal and/or state regulatory actions could require us to install significant additional emissions control equipment, resulting in potentially material costs of compliance for our generation units, including capital expenditures, higher operating and fuel costs and potential production curtailments. These costs could have a material adverse effect on results of operations and financial condition.
We may not be able to obtain or maintain all required environmental regulatory approvals. If there is a delay in obtaining any required environmental regulatory approvals, if we fail to obtain, maintain or comply with any such approval or if an approval is retroactively disallowed or adversely modified, the operation of our generation facilities could be stopped, disrupted, curtailed or modified or become subject to additional costs. Any such stoppage, disruption, curtailment, modification or additional costs could have a material adverse effect on results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, we may be responsible for any
on-site
liabilities associated with the environmental condition of facilities that we have acquired, leased, developed or sold, regardless of when the liabilities arose and whether they are now known or unknown. In connection with certain acquisitions and sales of assets, we may obtain, or be required to provide, indemnification against certain environmental liabilities. Another party could, depending on the circumstances, assert an environmental claim against us or fail to meet its indemnification obligation to us. Such event could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We could be materially and adversely affected if current regulations are implemented or if new federal or state legislation or regulations are adopted to address global climate change, or if we are subject to lawsuits for alleged damage to persons or property resulting from greenhouse gas emissions.
There is attention and interest nationally and internationally about global climate change and how greenhouse gas emissions, such as CO2, contribute to global climate change. Over the last several years, the U.S. Congress and state and federal authorities have considered and debated several proposals intended to address climate change using different approaches, including a cap on carbon emissions with emitters allowed to trade unused emission allowances
(cap-and-trade),
a tax on carbon or greenhouse gas emissions, limits on the use of generated power in connection with cryptocurrency mining, incentives for the development of
low-carbon
technology and federal renewable portfolio standards. A number of federal court cases have been filed in recent years asserting damage claims related to greenhouse gas emissions, and the results in those proceedings could establish adverse precedent that might apply to companies (including us) that produce greenhouse gas emissions. Our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected if new federal and/or state legislation or regulations are adopted to address global climate change or if we are subject to lawsuits for alleged damage to persons or property resulting from greenhouse gas emissions.
Risks Related to Our Support Services Segment.
Our Support Services segment’s financial condition and results of operations may vary from quarter to quarter.
Support’s quarterly results of operations have fluctuated in the past and could do so in the future. Fluctuations in results of operations of our Support Services segment may be due to a number of factors, including, but not limited to, those listed below and those identified throughout this section:
 
   
The performance of its partners, including the success of its partners in attracting end users of its products, which can impact the amount of revenue it derives;
 
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Change, or reduction in or discontinuance of its programs with clients and partners;
 
   
Cancellations, rescheduling or deferrals of significant customer products or service programs;
 
   
Its reliance on a small number of partners for a substantial majority of its revenue;
 
   
Its ability to successfully license and grow revenue related to its SUPERAntiSpyware
®
software, Guided Paths
®
, Support.com Cloud and its service offerings;
 
   
The timing of its sales to its clients and its partners’ resale of its products to end users and its ability to enter into new sales with partners and renew existing programs with its clients and partners;
 
   
The availability and cost-effectiveness of advertising placements for its software products and services and its ability to respond to changes in the advertising markets in which it participates;
 
   
The efficiency and effectiveness of its technology specialists;
 
   
Its ability to effectively match staffing levels with service volumes on a cost-effective basis;
 
   
Its ability to manage contract labor;
 
   
Its ability to hire, train, manage and retain its home-based customer support specialists and enhance the flexibility of its staffing model in a cost-effective fashion and in quantities sufficient to meet forecast requirements;
 
   
Its ability to manage costs under its self-funded health insurance program;
 
   
Usage rates on the subscriptions it offers;
 
   
Its ability to maintain a competitive cost structure for its organization;
 
   
The rate of expansion of its offerings and its investments therein;
 
   
Changes in the markets for computers and other technology devices relating to unit volume, pricing and other factors, including changes driven by declines in sales of personal computers and the growing popularity of tablets, and other mobile devices and the introduction of new devices into the connected home;
 
   
Its ability to adapt to its clients’ needs in a market space defined by frequent technological change;
 
   
Severe financial hardship or bankruptcy of one or more of its major clients;
 
   
The amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures in its business;
 
   
Failure to protect its intellectual property; and
 
   
Public health or safety concerns, medical epidemics or pandemics, such as
COVID-19,
and other natural- or
man-made
disasters.
A substantial portion of revenue generated by our Support Services segment is attributable to a limited number of clients. The loss or reduction in business from any of these clients could adversely affect its business and results of operations.
Our Support Services segment receives a significant amount of its revenue from a limited number of customers. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, which was prior to the Merger and not included in our results of operations, its largest customer accounted for over 44% and 63% of Support’s total revenue, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, its second largest customer accounted for 43% and 25% of Support’s total revenue, respectively. For the nine months ended September 30, 2021, of which only a small portion was included in our results of operations, its largest and second largest customer accounted for 55% and 27% of Support’s total revenue, respectively. There were no other customers that accounted for 10% or more of Support’s total revenue in any of the periods presented. In October 2021, Support agreed with a subsidiary of
 
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Comcast Corporation, its second largest customer to terminate its contract to provide support services to Comcast (the “Comcast Contract”), effective the first quarter of 2022. The Comcast Contract represented approximately $2 million and $7 million of Support’s revenues for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively, of which, only a small portion occurred since the Merger and was included in our results of operations. Support’s operating income from the Comcast Contract for each of the aforementioned periods was negative.
In the past, sales to Support’s largest customers have fluctuated significantly from period to period and year to year and will likely continue to fluctuate in the future. The loss of these or other significant relationships, the change of the terms or terminations of its arrangements with any of these customers, the reduction or discontinuance of programs or billable hours with any of these customers, or the failure of any of these customers to achieve their targets has in the past adversely affected and could in the future adversely affect our Support Services segment.
Our Support Services segment’s business is based on a relatively new and evolving business model.
Our Support Services segment provides customer support services by professionals who work from their homes, creating a robust, timely and innovative library of Guided Path
®
self-support tools, licensing the Support.com Cloud application, and providing end-user consumer software products. We may not be able to offer these services and software products successfully. Our customer support professionals are generally home-based, which requires a high degree of coordination and quality control of employees working from diverse and remote locations. Based on the relatively new and evolving business model of our Support Services segment, as well as its recent integration within our business as a whole, the future revenue and income potential of the Support Services segment is uncertain. Some of these risks and uncertainties related to our Support Services segment concern its ability to, among other things, maintain current relationships and service programs, develop new relationships, reach prospective customers in a cost-effective manner, reduce its dependence on a limited number of partners, successfully license and grow revenue related to its product and service offerings, adapt to changes in the market it serves, respond to government regulations, and manage and respond to present, threatened or future litigation. If we are unable to address these risks, our Support Services segment business, results of operations and prospects could suffer.
Support is a party to a Consent Order with the Federal Trade Commission which imposes ongoing obligations.
On November 6, 2018, Support entered into a Stipulation to Entry of Order for Permanent Injunction and Monetary Judgment (the “Consent Order”), with the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”), resolving a multi-year FTC investigation relating to PC Healthcheck, an obsolete software program that Support developed on behalf of a third party for their use with their customers. As part of the Consent Order, Support agreed to pay $10 million and to implement certain new procedures and enhance certain existing procedures. Any violation or alleged violation of the terms of the Consent Order could impose additional financial liability in the form of regulatory fines and/or legal fees, as well as harm Support’s reputation with customers or prospective customers and adversely affect our Support Services segment’s results of operations.
We may face intellectual property infringement claims that could be costly to defend and result in its loss of significant rights.
Our Support Services segment relies on the use and licensing of technology. Other parties may assert intellectual property infringement claims against Support or our customers, and our products may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties. For example, Support’s products may infringe patents issued to third parties. In addition, as is increasingly common in the technology sector, Support may be confronted with the aggressive enforcement of patents by companies whose primary business activity is to acquire patents for the purpose of offensively asserting them against other companies. From time to time, Support has received allegations or
 
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claims of intellectual property infringement, and it may receive more claims in the future. Support may also be required to pursue litigation to protect its intellectual property rights or defend against allegations of infringement. Intellectual property litigation is expensive and time-consuming and could divert management’s attention from our business. The outcome of any litigation is uncertain and could significantly impact our financial results. If there is a successful claim of infringement, we may be required to develop
non-infringing
technology or enter into royalty or license agreements which may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. Our failure to develop
non-infringing
technologies or license proprietary rights on a timely basis could harm our Support Services segment.
If we are unable to protect or enforce intellectual property rights related to our Support Services segment, or we lose our ability to utilize the intellectual property of others, our Support Services segment could be adversely affected.
The success of our Support Services segment depends, in part, upon our ability to obtain intellectual property protection for Support’s proprietary processes, software and other solutions. Support relies upon confidentiality policies, nondisclosure and other contractual arrangements, and patent, trade secret, copyright and trademark laws to protect its intellectual property rights. These laws are subject to change at any time and could further limit Support’s ability to obtain or maintain intellectual property protection. There is uncertainty concerning the scope of patent and other intellectual property protection for software and business methods, which are fields in which Support relies on intellectual property laws to protect its rights. Even where Support obtains intellectual property protection, its intellectual property rights may not prevent or deter competitors, former employees, or other third parties from reverse engineering its solutions or software. Further, the steps Support takes in this regard might not be adequate to prevent or deter infringement or other misappropriation of its intellectual property by competitors, former employees or other third parties, and it may not be able to detect unauthorized use of, or take appropriate and timely steps to enforce, its intellectual property rights. Enforcing Support’s rights might also require considerable time, money and oversight, and it may not be successful. Further, Support relies on third-party software in providing some of its services and solutions. If Support loses its ability to continue using any such software for any reason, including because it is found to infringe the rights of others, it will need to obtain substitute software or find alternative means of obtaining the technology necessary to continue to provide its solutions. Support’s inability to replace such software, or to replace such software in a timely or cost-effective manner, could materially adversely affect the results of operations of our Support Services segment.
Our Support Services segment must comply with a variety of existing and future laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs on it and may adversely impact its business.
We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations, which may differ among jurisdictions, affecting our Support Services segment’s operations in areas including, but not limited to: intellectual property ownership and infringement; tax; anti-corruption such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the UK Bribery Act; foreign exchange controls and cash repatriation restrictions; data privacy requirements such as the European Economic Area Privacy Regulation, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) and the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”); competition; consent order terms (for example, the recent Consent Order Support entered into with the FTC); advertising; employment; product regulations; health and safety requirements; and consumer laws. If we fail to continue to comply with these regulations, we may be unable to provide products or services to certain customers within our Support Services segment, or we may incur penalties or fines. We are unable to predict the outcome or effects of any of these potential actions or any other legislative or regulatory proposals on our business. Any changes to the legal and regulatory framework applicable to our Support Services segment could have an adverse impact on the results of its operations. Although Support’s management systems are designed to maintain compliance, if we violate or fail to comply with any laws or regulations, applicable consent orders or decrees, a range of consequences could result, including fines, sales limitations, criminal and civil liabilities or other sanctions. The costs of complying with these laws (including the costs of any investigations, auditing and monitoring) could adversely affect our Support Services segment current or future business.
 
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Our product and service offerings are in their early stages and failure to market, sell and develop the offerings effectively and competitively could result in a lack of growth.
A number of competitive offerings exist in the market, providing various features that may overlap with our Support.com offerings today or in the future. Some competitors in these markets far exceed its spending on sales and marketing activities and benefit from greater existing brand awareness, channel relationships and existing customer relationships. We may not be able to reach the market effectively and adequately or convey our differentiation as needed to grow our customer base. To reach our target market effectively, we may be required to continue to invest substantial resources in sales and marketing and engineering and IT activities, which could have an adverse effect on our Support Services segment’s financial results. In addition, if we fail to develop and maintain competitive features, deliver high-quality products and satisfy existing customers, our Support.com offerings could fail to grow. Disruptions in infrastructure operations could impair our ability to deliver Support.com offerings to customers, thereby affecting our reputation with existing and prospective customers and possibly resulting in monetary penalties or financial losses.
The Support Services segment operates in a highly competitive industry, with intense price competition, which may intensify as its competitors expand their operations.
The industry in which our Support Services segment operates is highly competitive and includes numerous small companies capable of competing effectively in it markets on a local basis, as well as several large companies that possess substantially greater financial resources than we do. Contracts are traditionally awarded on the basis of competitive bids or direct negotiations with customers.
The competitive factors in these markets include, amongst others, product and service quality and availability, responsiveness, experience, technology, equipment quality, reputation for retaining highly skilled agents and price. The competitive environment has intensified as mergers among industry partners have reduced the number of available customers and mergers amongst our competitors have created larger companies for us to compete against. Some of our current and potential competitors have greater resources, longer histories, more customers, and/or greater brand recognition. They may secure better terms from vendors, adopt more aggressive pricing, and devote more resources to technology, infrastructure, fulfillment, and marketing.
Competition may intensify, including with the development of new business models and the entry of new and well-funded competitors, and as our competitors enter into business combinations or alliances and established companies in other markets expand to become competitive with our business. Furthermore, we cannot be sure that its competitors will not develop competing products, systems, services or technologies that gain market acceptance in advance of our products, systems, services or technologies, or that our competitors will not develop new products, systems, services or technologies that cause our existing products, systems, services or technologies to become
non-competitive
or obsolete, which may adversely affect our Support Services segment’s results of operations through the potential reduction of sales and profits.
Our Support Services segment’s business is highly dependent upon its brand recognition and reputation, and the failure to maintain or enhance its brand recognition or reputation would likely have a material adverse effect on its business.
Support’s brand recognition and reputation are critical aspects of our Support Services segment. We believe that maintaining and further enhancing our Support.com brand as well as our reputation will be critical to retaining existing customers and attracting new customers. We also believe that the importance of Support’s brand recognition and reputation will continue to increase as competition in its markets continues to develop. Support’s success in this area will be dependent on a wide range of factors, some of which are out of our control, including the following:
 
   
the efficacy of our marketing efforts;
 
   
its ability to retain existing and obtain new customers and strategic partners;
 
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the quality and perceived value of our services;
 
   
actions of its competitors, its strategic partners, and other third parties;
 
   
positive or negative publicity, including material on the Internet;
 
   
regulatory and other governmental related developments; and
 
   
litigation related developments.
Any of the foregoing could have an adverse effect on our Support Services segment’s results of operations.
Our Support Services segment’s success depends upon our ability to attract, develop and retain highly qualified employees while also controlling its labor costs in a competitive labor market.
Support’s customers expect a high level of customer support and product knowledge from its employees. To meet the needs and expectations of Support’s customers, it must attract, develop and retain a large number of highly qualified employees while at the same time control labor costs. Support’s ability to control labor costs is subject to numerous external factors, including prevailing wage rates and health and other insurance costs, as well as the impact of legislation or regulations governing labor relations, minimum wage, or healthcare benefits. An inability to provide wages and/or benefits that are competitive within the markets in which our Support Services segment operates could adversely affect our ability to retain and attract employees. In addition, Support competes with other retail businesses for many of its employees in hourly positions, and it invests significant resources in training and motivating them to maintain a high level of job satisfaction. These positions have historically had high turnover rates, which can lead to increased training and retention costs, particularly in a competitive labor market. Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees and executive management could hinder Support’s strategic planning and execution. There is no assurance that Support will be able to attract or retain highly qualified employees in the future. As such, our Support Services segment’s ability to develop and deliver successful products and services may be adversely affected.
Disruptions in Support’s information technology and service delivery infrastructure and operations could impair the delivery of its services and harm our Support Services segment’s business.
Support depends on the continuing operation of its information technology and communication systems and those of its third-party service providers. Any interruption or failure of its internal or external systems could prevent Support or its service providers from accepting orders and delivering services, or cause company and consumer data to be unintentionally lost, destroyed or disclosed. Support’s continuing efforts to upgrade and enhance the security and reliability of its information technology and communications infrastructure could be very costly, and it may have to expend significant resources to remedy problems such as a security breach or service interruption. Interruptions in its services resulting from labor disputes, telephone or Internet failures, power or service outages, natural disasters or other events, or a security breach could reduce its revenue, increase its costs, cause customers and partners and licensees to fail to renew or to terminate their use of its offerings, and harm its reputation and its ability to attract new customers.
Costs related to software defects or other errors in Support’s products could have a material adverse effect on our Support Services segment.
From time to time, Support may experience software defects, bugs and other errors associated with the introduction and/or use of its complex software products. Despite Support’s testing procedures, errors may occur in new products or releases after commencement of commercial deployments in the future. Such errors could result in:
 
   
Loss of or delay in market acceptance of its products;
 
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Material recall and replacement costs;
 
   
Delay in revenue recognition or loss of revenue;
 
   
The diversion of the attention of its engineering personnel from product development efforts;
 
   
Support having to defend against litigation related to defective products; and
 
   
Damage to Support’s reputation in the industry that could adversely affect its relationships with its customers.
In addition, the process of identifying a software error in software products that have been widely distributed may be lengthy and require significant resources. Support may have difficulty identifying the end customers of the defective products in the field, which may cause it to incur significant replacement costs, contract damage claims from its customers and further reputational harm. Any of these problems could materially and adversely affect our Support Services segment’s results of operations. Despite Support’s best efforts, security vulnerabilities may exist with respect to its products. Mitigation techniques designed to address such security vulnerabilities, including software and firmware updates or other preventative measures, may not operate as intended or effectively resolve such vulnerabilities. Software and firmware updates and/or other mitigation efforts may result in performance issues, system instability, data loss or corruption, unpredictable system behavior, or the theft of data by third parties, any of which could significantly harm Support’s business and reputation.
Support’s systems collect, access, use, and store personal customer information and enable customer transactions, which poses security risks, requires it to invest significant resources to prevent or correct problems that may be caused by security breaches, and may harm our Support Services segment’s business.
A fundamental requirement for online communications, transactions and support is the secure collection, storage and transmission of confidential information. Support’s systems collect and store confidential and personal information of its individual customers as well as its partners and their customers’ users, including personally identifiable information and payment card information, and its employees and contractors may access and use that information in the course of providing services. In addition, Support collects and retains personal information of its employees in the ordinary course of its business. Support and its third-party contractors use commercially available technologies to secure this information. Despite these measures, parties may attempt to breach the security of Support’s data or that of its customers. In addition, errors in the storage or transmission of data could breach the security of that information. Support may be liable to its customers for any breach in security and any breach could subject it to governmental or administrative proceedings or monetary penalties, damage its relationships with partners and harm its business and reputation. Also, computers are vulnerable to computer viruses, physical or electronic
break-ins
and similar disruptions, which could lead to interruptions, delays or loss of data. We may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to comply with mandatory privacy and security standards required by law, industry standard, or contract, and to further protect against security breaches or to correct problems caused by any security breach.
A breach of Support’s security systems may have a material adverse effect on our Support Services segment’s business.
Support’s security systems are designed to maintain the physical security of its facilities and protect its customers’ and employees’ confidential information, as well as its own proprietary information. However, Support is also dependent on a number of third-party cloud-based and other service providers of critical corporate infrastructure services relating to, among other things, human resources, electronic communication services and certain finance functions, and Support is, of necessity, dependent on the security systems of these providers. Accidental or willful security breaches or other unauthorized access by third parties or Support’s employees or contractors of its facilities, its information systems or the systems of its cloud-based or other service providers, or the existence of computer viruses or malware in its or their data or software could expose it to a risk of
 
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information loss and misappropriation of proprietary and confidential information, including information relating to its products or customers and the personal information of its employees. In addition, Support has, from time to time, also been subject to unauthorized network intrusions and malware on its own IT networks. Any theft or misuse of confidential, personal or proprietary information as a result of such activities could result in, among other things, unfavorable publicity, damage to Support’s reputation, loss of its trade secrets and other competitive information, difficulty in marketing its products, allegations by its customers that Support has not performed its contractual obligations, litigation by affected parties and possible financial obligations for liabilities and damages related to the theft or misuse of such information, as well as fines and other sanctions resulting from any related breaches of data privacy regulations, any of which could have a material adverse effect on its reputation, business, profitability and financial condition. Since the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and are often not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures.
Data privacy regulations are expanding and compliance with, and any violations of, these regulations may cause us to incur significant expenses.
Support’s software and services contain features that allow its technology specialists and other personnel to access, control, monitor, and collect information from computers and other devices. Privacy legislation, enforcement and policy activity in this area are expanding rapidly in many jurisdictions and creating a complex regulatory compliance environment. Costs to comply with and implement these privacy-related and data protection measures could be significant. Even the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may harm Support’s reputation and inhibit adoption of its solutions by current and future customers. In addition, Support may face claims about invasion of privacy or inappropriate disclosure, use, storage, or loss of information obtained from its customers. In addition, even Support’s inadvertent failure to comply with federal, state or international privacy-related or data protection laws and regulations could result in proceedings against Support by governmental entities or others, and substantial fines and damages. The theft, loss or misuse of personal data collected, used, stored or transferred by Support to run Support’s business could result in significantly increased business and security costs or costs related to defending legal claims.
Our Support Services segment relies on third-party technologies in providing certain of its software and services. Support’s inability to use, retain or integrate third-party technologies could delay service or software development and could harm the Support Services segment’s business.
Support licenses technologies from third parties, which are integrated into its services, technology and end user software. Support’s use of commercial technologies licensed on a
non-exclusive
basis from third parties poses certain risks. Some of the third-party technologies Support licenses may be provided under “open source” licenses, which may have terms that require it to make generally available its modifications or derivative works based on such open source code. Support’s inability to obtain or integrate third-party technologies with its own technology could delay service development until equivalent compatible technology can be identified, licensed and integrated. These third-party technologies may not continue to be available to Support on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If Support’s relationship with third parties were to deteriorate, or if such third parties were unable to develop innovative and saleable products, or component features of its products, it could be forced to identify a new developer and its future revenue could suffer. Support may fail to successfully integrate any licensed technology into its services or software, or maintain it through its own development work, which could harm the business and operating results of our Support Services segment.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $                million after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions, the Structuring Fee and estimated expenses related to this offering (or approximately $                 million if the underwriters’ option is exercised in full). We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including funding capital expenditures, future acquisitions, investments and working capital and repaying indebtedness.
 
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of September 30, 2021:
 
   
on an actual basis;
 
   
on an adjusted basis to give pro forma effect to our offering of $55.2 million of the Original Notes; and
 
   
on a further adjusted basis to give effect to this offering as if it occurred on that date, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions, the Structuring Fee and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
The information presented in this table is unaudited and should be read in conjunction with the information under “
Use of Proceeds
”, the sections entitled “
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for Greenidge
,” “
Unaudited Pro Forma Combined Financial Information
” and the unaudited consolidated financial statements of Greenidge for the quarter ended September 30, 2021, the audited consolidated financial statements of Greenidge, and the audited consolidated financial statements of Support, each included elsewhere in this prospectus.
 
    
As of September 30, 2021
 
    
Actual
    
As
adjusted
for the
Original
Notes
Offering
    
As further
adjusted
for this
offering
(1)
(2)
 
    
(in thousands)
 
Cash and cash equivalents
   $ 51,149      $ 103,854      $    
Long-term liabilities:
        
Deferred tax liability
     3,959        3,959     
Notes payable, net of current portion
(3)
     7,369        7,369     
Finance lease obligation, net of current portion
     111        111     
Asset retirement obligations
     2,380        2,380     
Environmental trust liability
     4,994        4,994     
Other long-term liabilities
     242        242     
Original Notes
(4)
     —          55,200        55,200  
Notes offered hereby
(5)
     —          —       
Total long-term
liabilities
     19,055        74,255     
Total
Stockholders’ equity (deficit)
     202,029        202,029     
Total capitalization
   $ 221,084      $ 276,284      $    
 
(1)
Excludes up to an additional $             million aggregate principal amount of Notes issuable upon the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional Notes.
(2)
Excludes sales of shares of class A common stock in connection with the Purchase Agreement.
(3)
Excludes funding of additional notes payable associated with the purchase commitments subsequent to September 30, 2021 as disclosed below under “
Description of Other Indebtedness
.”
(4)
Excludes unamortized debt issuance costs of approximately $2.6 million on the Original Notes.
(5)
Excludes unamortized debt issuance costs of approximately $             million on the Notes offered hereby.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF OTHER INDEBTEDNESS
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations and other commitments as of September 30, 2021, (the latest practicable date prior to filing of this registration statement) and the years in which these obligations are due:
 
$ in thousands
  
Total
    
Less than
1 Year
    
1-3
Years
 
Notes payable
(1)
   $ 42,932      $ 25,229      $ 17,703  
Leases
(2)
   $ 943      $ 670      $ 273  
Natural gas commitments
(3)
   $ 9,187      $ 9,187      $ —    
Purchase commitments
(4)
   $ 103,778      $ 103,778      $ —    
 
(1)
The notes payable amounts presented in the above table include financed principal obligations plus estimated contractual future interest and risk premium payments.
(2)
Lease obligations include fixed monthly rental payments and exclude estimated revenue sharing payments.
(3)
Represents off balance sheet arrangements to purchase natural gas through March 1, 2022.
(4)
Represents miner purchase commitments as of September 30, 2021 reduced by deposits made as of September 30, 2021.
Notes Payable—Equipment Finance Agreements
The notes payable are associated with equipment finance and security agreements that financed the purchase of miners that have been delivered. These notes carry an annual interest rate of between 15% and 17%, and are repaid by way of blended payments of interest and principal, as well as an additional risk premium payment, with the final payment due 18 months from delivery date.
Finance Lease
In March 2021, we entered into an equipment lease agreement for certain mining units. In conjunction with the lease agreement, we recorded a finance lease obligation of $1.2 million and a
right-of-use
asset of $1.4 million. The lease includes obligations for a monthly fixed payment of less than $0.1 million and a revenue sharing obligation of 10% of the revenue attributable to the miners purchased. The lease ends in August 2022, at which point the equipment transfers to us. See Note 5 to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) included in this prospectus.
Purchase Commitments
As of September 30, 2021 we had outstanding commitments to purchase an additional 17,200 miners with a remaining cash commitment of $103.8 million, which has been included in the table above. We have $5.2 million of committed financing associated with these miners that will be funded upon delivery. These purchase commitments are cancellable only by us; however, if we were to cancel, we would forfeit the equipment deposits paid.
The $5.2 million of committed financing for the miner purchase commitments are generally for a term of 18 months from delivery date with interest rates between 15% to 17% and require an additional risk premium payment.
Since the end of the third quarter through November 15, 2021, we had ordered an additional 12,500 S19j Pro Bitmain Antminers. The aggregate amount of these additional purchases was approximately $24.3 million.
We announced in October 2021 that we had entered into a Purchase and Sale Agreement for land and a facility in Spartanburg, South Carolina, with a purchase price of $15.0 million.
 
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Letters of Credit
On March 19, 2021, we entered into an arrangement with Atlas Capital Resources LP and Atlas Capital Resources (P) LP (collectively referred to herein as “Atlas”) and its affiliates pursuant to which we agreed, upon request, to direct our bank to issue new letters of credit to replace all or a portion of the letters of credit provided by Atlas and certain of its affiliates, upon the consummation of a potential investment in, financing of, or sale of any of our assets or equity or debt securities, which results in net proceeds to us of at least $10,000,000.
Atlas obtained a letter of credit from a financial institution in the amount of $4,994 at June 30, 2021, payable to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (“NYSDEC”). This letter of credit guarantees the current value of the Company’s environmental trust liability. The Company owns and operates a landfill, and as required by the NYSDEC, landfills are required to fund a trust to cover closure costs and expenses after the landfill has stopped operating.
Atlas also obtained a letter of credit from a financial institution in the amount of $3,630 at June 30, 2021, payable to Empire Pipeline Incorporated (“Empire”) in the event the Company should not make contracted payments for costs related to a pipeline interconnection project the Company has entered into with Empire. See Note 11 to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) included in this prospectus.
Registered Original Notes Offering
On October 13, 2021, we completed a registered public offering of $55.2 million of the Original Notes. The Original Notes bear interest at the rate of 8.50% per annum. The Original Notes will mature on October 31, 2026. The Original Notes are senior unsecured obligations of the Company and rank equal in right of payment with our existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness. The Notes offered hereby will have substantially the same terms as the Original Notes and will constitute the same series of securities as the Original Notes for the purposes of the indenture governing the Notes and Original Notes. See “
Description of Notes
.”
We received net proceeds after discounts and commissions, but before expenses and payment of a structuring fee, of approximately $53.3 million in connection with the offering of the Original Notes.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF NOTES
Greenidge Generation Holdings Inc. (the “Company”) will issue $                 in aggregate principal amount of 8.50% Senior Notes due 2026 (the “Notes”) under an indenture dated as of October 13, 2021 (the “base indenture”) between the Company and Wilmington Savings Fund Society, FSB as trustee (the “trustee”), as amended and supplemented by the first supplemental indenture (together with the base indenture, the “indenture”). The Notes will be a further issuance of, rank equally in right of payment with, be fully fungible with, and form a single series with the Original Notes for all purposes under the indenture, including, without limitation, waivers, amendments, consents, redemptions and other offers to purchase and voting. We refer to the “Notes” and the “Original Notes” separately in this prospectus since only the Notes are being offered hereby, and any general discussion of the terms of the Notes also applies to the Original Notes since they are treated as the same under the indenture. Unless the context requires otherwise, all references to “we,” “us,” “our” and the “Company” in this section refer solely to Greenidge Generation Holdings Inc., the issuer of the Notes, and not to any of its subsidiaries.
The following description is only a summary of certain provisions of the indenture and the Notes. You should read these documents in their entirety because they, and not this description, define your rights as holders of the Notes. The following summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, the indenture and to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”), and to all of the provisions of the indenture and those terms made a part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act. The indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on October 13, 2021.
General
The Notes:
 
   
will be our general unsecured, senior obligations;
 
   
will be initially limited to an aggregate principal amount of $                 (assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional Notes described herein), and after giving effect to the offering, the total amount outstanding of our 8.50% Notes due 2026 will be $                 ;
 
   
will mature on October 31, 2026 unless earlier redeemed or repurchased, and         % of the aggregate principal amount will be paid at maturity;
 
   
will bear cash interest from October 13, 2021 at an annual rate of 8.50%, payable quarterly in arrears on January 31, April 30, July 31 and October 31 of each year, beginning on January 31, 2022, and at maturity;
 
   
be consolidated, form a single series, and be fully fungible with the Original Notes;
 
   
will be redeemable at our option, in whole or in part, at any time on or after October 31, 2023, at the prices and on the terms described under “
—Optional Redemption
” below;
 
   
will be issued in denominations of $25 and integral multiples of $25 in excess thereof;
 
   
will not have a sinking fund;
 
   
will be listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “GREEL”; and
 
   
will be represented by one or more registered Notes in global form, but in certain limited circumstances may be represented by Notes in definitive form.
 
   
will be redeemable at our option, in whole, but not in part, at any time upon the occurrence of certain change of control events, at the prices and on the terms described under “
—Optional Redemption Upon Change of Control
” below;
The indenture does not limit the amount of indebtedness that we or our subsidiaries may issue. The indenture does not contain any financial covenants and does not restrict us from paying dividends or issuing or
 
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repurchasing our other securities. Other than restrictions described under “
—Covenants—Merger, Consolidation
or Sale of Assets
” below, the indenture does not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to afford holders of the Notes protection in the event of a highly leveraged transaction involving us or in the event of a decline in our credit rating as the result of a takeover, recapitalization, highly leveraged transaction or similar restructuring involving us that could adversely affect such holders.
We may from time to time, without the consent of the existing holders, issue further additional Notes having the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise (except the price to public, the issue date and, if applicable, the initial interest accrual date and the initial interest payment date) that may constitute a single fungible series with the Notes offered by this prospectus; provided that if any such additional Notes are not fungible with the Notes initially offered hereby for U.S. federal income tax purposes, such additional Notes will have one or more separate CUSIP numbers. For the avoidance of doubt, such additional Notes will still constitute a single series with all other Notes issued under the indenture for all purposes, including waivers, amendments, redemptions and offers to purchase.
Ranking
The Notes are senior unsecured obligations of the Company, and, upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, will rank (i) senior to the outstanding shares of our common stock, (ii) senior to any of our future subordinated debt, (iii)
 pari passu
(or equally) with our existing and future unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness, including the Original Notes, (iv) effectively subordinated to any existing or future secured indebtedness (including indebtedness that is initially unsecured to which we subsequently grant security), to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness, and (v) structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness of our subsidiaries, financing vehicles or similar facilities. See “
Risk Factors—The Notes will be unsecured and therefore will be effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness that we currently have or that we may incur in the future.
” The Notes will be obligations solely of the Company and will not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries.
We derive substantially all of our operating income and cash flow from our investments in our subsidiaries. Claims of creditors of our subsidiaries generally will have priority with respect to the assets and earnings of such subsidiaries over the claims of our creditors, including holders of the Notes. As a result, the Notes will be effectively subordinated to creditors, including trade creditors and preferred stockholders, if any, other than us, of our subsidiaries. See “
Risk Factors—The Notes will be structurally subordinated to the indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries.
As of October 31, 2021, we had approximately $82.9 million of outstanding indebtedness, inclusive of $55.2 million of our Original Notes, which was unsecured, and approximately $0.8 million of outstanding capital lease obligations, which was secured.
Interest
Interest on the Notes will accrue at an annual rate equal to 8.50% from and including October 13, 2021 to, but excluding, the maturity date or earlier acceleration or redemption and will be payable quarterly in arrears on January 31, April 30, July 31 and October 31 of each year, beginning on January 31, 2022 and at maturity, to the holders of record at the close of business on the immediately preceding January 15, April 15, July 15 and October 15 (and October 15 immediately preceding the maturity date), as applicable (whether or not a business day).
The initial interest period for the Notes will be the period from and including October 13, 2021, to, but excluding, January 31, 2022, and subsequent interest periods will be the periods from and including an interest payment date to, but excluding, the next interest payment date or the stated maturity date, as the case may be. The amount of interest payable for any interest period, including interest payable for any partial interest period, will be computed on the basis of a
360-day
year comprised of twelve
30-day
months. If an interest payment date falls on a
non-business
day, the applicable interest payment will be made on the next business day and no additional interest will accrue as a result of such delayed payment.
 
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“Business day” means, for any place where the principal and interest on the Notes is payable, each Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday which is not a day in which banking institutions in New York or Wilmington, Delaware are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close.
Optional Redemption
Except as described below and under “
—Optional Redemption Upon Change of Control
,” the Notes will not be redeemable by us at our option prior to October 31, 2023.
The Notes may be redeemed for cash in whole or in part at any time at our option (i) on or after October 31, 2023 and prior to October 31, 2024, at a price equal to 102% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption, (ii) on or after October 31, 2024 and prior to October 31, 2025, at a price equal to 101% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption, and (iii) on or after October 31, 2025 and prior to maturity, at a price equal to 100% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption.
In each case, redemption shall be upon notice not fewer than 10 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption, except that redemption notices may be delivered more than 60 days prior to a redemption date if the notice is issued in connection with a defeasance of the Notes or a discharge of the indenture. Notices of redemption may be subject to satisfaction or waiver of one or more conditions precedent specified in the notice of redemption.
If less than all of the Notes are to be redeemed, the particular Notes to be redeemed will be selected not more than 45 days prior to the redemption date by the trustee from the outstanding Notes not previously called for redemption, by lot, or in the trustee’s discretion, on a
pro-rata
basis, provided that the unredeemed portion of the principal amount of any Notes will be in an authorized denomination (which will not be less than the minimum authorized denomination) for such Notes. The trustee will promptly notify us in writing of the Notes selected for redemption and, in the case of any Notes selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed. Beneficial interests in any of the Notes or portions thereof called for redemption that are registered in the name of DTC or its nominee will be selected by DTC in accordance with DTC’s applicable procedures.
The trustee shall have no obligation to calculate any redemption price or any component thereof, and the trustee shall be entitled to receive and conclusively rely upon an officer’s certificate delivered by the Company that specifies any redemption price.
Unless we default on the payment of the redemption price, on and after the date of redemption, interest will cease to accrue on the Notes called for redemption.
We may at any time, and from time to time, purchase Notes at any price or prices in the open market or otherwise.
Optional Redemption Upon Change of Control
The Notes may be redeemed for cash in whole but not in part at our option at any time within 90 days of the occurrence of a Change of Control, at a price equal to 100.5% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption. Redemption shall be upon notice not fewer than 10 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption. Notices of redemption may be subject to satisfaction or waiver of one or more conditions precedent specified in the notice of redemption.
A “Change of Control” will be deemed to have occurred at the time after the Notes are originally issued if:
 
  (1)
any “Person” (as such term is used in Sections 13(d) and 14(d) of the Exchange Act) is or becomes the “Beneficial Owner” (as defined in Rules
13d-3
and
13d-5
under the Exchange Act, except that for purposes of this clause (1) such Person shall be deemed to have “Beneficial Ownership” of all shares that any such Person has the right to acquire, whether such right is exercisable immediately or only
 
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  after the passage of time), directly or indirectly, of more than 50.0% of the total voting power of the Voting Stock of the Company;
 
  (2)
the merger or consolidation of the Company with or into another Person or the merger of another Person with or into the Company, or the sale of all or substantially all the assets of the Company (determined on a consolidated basis) to another Person other than a transaction following which, in the case of a merger or consolidation transaction, holders of securities that represented 100.0% of the Voting Stock of the Company immediately prior to such transaction (or other securities into which such securities are converted as part of such merger or consolidation transaction) own directly or indirectly at least a majority of the voting power of the Voting Stock of the surviving Person in such merger or consolidation transaction immediately after such transaction and in substantially the same proportion as before the transaction;
 
  (3)
“Continuing Directors” (as defined below) cease to constitute at least a majority of the Company’s board of directors; or
 
  (4)
if after the Notes are initially listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or another national securities exchange, the Notes fail, or at any point cease, to be listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or such other national securities exchange. For the avoidance of doubt, it shall not be a Change of Control if after the Notes are initially listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or another national securities exchange, such Notes are subsequently listed on a different national securities exchange and the prior listing is terminated.
“Continuing Director” means a director who either was a member of our board of directors on the issue date of the Notes or who becomes a member of our board of directors subsequent to that date and whose election, appointment or nomination for election by our stockholders is duly approved by a majority of the continuing directors on our board of directors at the time of such approval by such election or appointment.
“Voting Stock” of any specified Person as of any date means the Capital Stock of such Person that is at the time entitled to vote generally in the election of the Board of Directors of such Person.
Events of Default
Holders of our Notes will have rights if an Event of Default occurs in respect of the Notes and is not cured, as described later in this subsection. The term “Event of Default” in respect of the Notes means any of the following:
 
   
we do not pay interest on any Note, including the Original Notes, when due, and such default is not cured within 30 days;
 
   
we do not pay the principal of the Notes, including the Original Notes, when due and payable;
 
   
we breach any covenant or warranty in the indenture with respect to the Notes, including the Original Notes, and such breach continues for 60 days after we receive a written notice of such breach from the trustee or the holders of at least 25% of the principal amount of the Notes, including the Original Notes as a single series; and
 
   
certain specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur and remain undischarged or unstayed for a period of 90 days.
The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of the Notes of any default, except in the payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, if the trustee in good faith determines the withholding of notice to be in the interest of the holders of the Notes.
Each year, we will furnish to the trustee a written statement of certain of our officers certifying that to their knowledge we are in compliance with the indenture and the Notes, or else specifying any default, its status and what actions we are taking or propose to take with respect thereto.
 
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Remedies if an Event of Default Occurs
If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% of the outstanding principal amount of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, may declare the entire principal amount of the Notes, together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to be due and payable immediately by a notice in writing to us and, if notice is given by the holders of the Notes, the trustee. This is called an “acceleration of maturity.” If the Event of Default occurs in relation to our filing for bankruptcy or certain other events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur, the principal amount of the Notes, together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, will automatically, and without any declaration or other action on the part of the trustee or the holders, become immediately due and payable.
At any time after a declaration of acceleration of the Notes has been made by the trustee or the holders of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, and before any judgment or decree for payment of money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority of the outstanding principal of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, by written notice to us and the trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if (i) we have paid or deposited with the trustee all amounts due and owed with respect to the Notes (other than principal that has become due solely by reason of such acceleration) and certain other amounts, and (ii) any other Events of Default have been cured or waived.
At our election, the sole remedy with respect to an Event of Default due to our failure to comply with certain reporting requirements under the Trust Indenture Act or under “—
Covenants—Reporting
” below, for the first 180 calendar days after the occurrence of such Event of Default, consists exclusively of the right to receive additional interest on the Notes at an annual rate equal to (1) 0.25% for the first 90 calendar days after such default and (2) 0.50% for calendar days 91 through 180 after such default. On the 181st day after such Event of Default, if such violation is not cured or waived, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% of the outstanding principal amount of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, may declare the principal, together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on the Notes to be due and payable immediately. If we choose to pay such additional interest, we must notify the trustee and the holders of the Notes by certificate of our election at any time on or before the close of business on the first business day following the Event of Default and we shall deliver to the trustee an officer’s certificate (upon which the trustee may rely conclusively) to that effect stating (i) the amount of such additional interest that is payable and (ii) the date on which such additional interest is payable. Unless and until the trustee receives such a certificate, the trustee may assume without inquiry that no such additional interest is payable and the trustee shall not have any duty to verify our calculations of additional interest.
Before a holder of the Notes is allowed to bypass the trustee and bring a lawsuit or other formal legal action or take other steps to enforce such holder’s rights relating to the Notes, the following must occur:
 
   
such holder must give the trustee written notice that the Event of Default has occurred and remains uncured;
 
   
the holders of at least 25% of the outstanding principal of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, must have made a written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as trustee;
 
   
such holder or holders must have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;
 
   
the trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and
 
   
no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the trustee during such
60-day
period by holders of a majority of the outstanding principal of the Notes.
No delay or omission in exercising any right or remedy will be treated as a waiver of that right, remedy or Event of Default.
 
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The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, may waive any default or Event of Default and its consequences, except defaults or Events of Default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or Event of Default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or Event of Default.
Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an Event of Default occurs and continues, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders, unless such holders have offered the trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to the trustee. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the Notes, provided that:
 
   
the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the indenture, nor does it subject the trustee to a risk of personal liability in respect of which the trustee has not received indemnification satisfactory to it in its sole discretion against all losses, liabilities and expenses caused by taking or not taking such action; and
 
   
the trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction.
A holder of the Notes will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:
 
   
the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing Event of Default;
 
   
the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the then-outstanding Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, have made written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as trustee under the indenture, and such holders have offered security or indemnity satisfactory to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and
 
   
the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Notes other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.
These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the Notes.
Book-entry and other indirect holders of the Notes should consult their banks or brokers for information on how to give notice or direction to or make a request of the trustee and how to declare or cancel an acceleration of maturity.
Waiver of Defaults
The holders of not less than a majority of the outstanding principal amount of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, may on behalf of the holders of all Notes waive any past default with respect to the Notes other than (i) a default in the payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest on the Notes when such payments are due and payable (other than by acceleration as described above), or (ii) in respect of a covenant that cannot per the terms of the indenture be modified or amended without the consent of each holder of Notes.
Covenants
In addition to standard covenants relating to payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest, maintaining an office where payments may be made or securities can be surrendered for payment, payment of taxes by us and related matters, the following covenants apply to the Notes.
 
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Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets
The indenture provides that we will not merge or consolidate with or into any other person (other than a merger of a wholly owned subsidiary into us), or sell, transfer, lease, convey or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all our property in any one transaction or series of related transactions unless:
 
   
we are the surviving entity or the entity (if other than us) formed by such merger or consolidation or to which such sale, transfer, lease, conveyance or disposition is made will be a corporation or limited liability company organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;
 
   
the surviving entity (if other than us) expressly assumes, by supplemental indenture in form reasonably satisfactory to the trustee, executed and delivered to the trustee by such surviving entity, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, all the Notes outstanding, and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of the indenture to be performed by us;
 
   
immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of related transactions, no default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing; and
 
   
in the case of a merger where the surviving entity is other than us, we or such surviving entity will deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the trustee, an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that such transaction and the supplemental indenture, if any, in respect thereto, comply with this covenant and that all conditions precedent in the indenture relating to such transaction have been complied with; provided that in giving an opinion of counsel, counsel may rely on an officers’ certificate as to any matters of fact, including as to the satisfaction of the preceding bullet.
The surviving entity (if other than us) will succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under the Notes and the indenture, and the Company will automatically and unconditionally be released and discharged from its obligations under the Notes and the indenture.
Reporting
If, at any time, we are not subject to the reporting requirements of Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act to file any periodic reports with the SEC, we agree to furnish to holders of the Notes and the trustee, for the period of time during which the Notes are outstanding, our audited annual consolidated financial statements, within 90 days of our fiscal year end, and unaudited interim consolidated financial statements, within 45 days of our fiscal quarter end (other than our fourth fiscal quarter). All such financial statements will be prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, as applicable.
The posting or delivery of any such information, documents and reports to the trustee is for informational purposes only and the trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of the covenants under the indenture (as to which the trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an officer’s certificate). The trustee shall have no duty to review or analyze reports, information and documents delivered to it. Additionally, the trustee shall not be obligated to monitor or confirm, on a continuing basis or otherwise, the Company’s compliance with the covenants or with respect to any reports or other documents filed with any protected online data system or participate on any conference calls.
 
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Modification or Waiver
There are three types of changes we can make to the indenture and the Notes:
Changes Not Requiring Approval
We can make certain changes to the indenture and the Notes without the specific approval of the holders of the Notes. This type is limited to clarifications and certain other changes that would not adversely affect holders of the Notes in any material respect and include changes:
 
   
to evidence the succession of another corporation, and the assumption by the successor corporation of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the indenture and the Notes;
 
   
to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders of the Notes, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any of such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default;
 
   
to modify, eliminate or add to any of the provisions of the indenture to such extent as necessary to effect the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act, and to add to the indenture such other provisions as may be expressly permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, excluding however, the provisions referred to in Section 316(a)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act;
 
   
to cure any ambiguity or to correct or supplement any provision contained in the indenture or in any supplemental indenture which may be defective or inconsistent with other provisions;
 
   
to secure the Notes;
 
   
to evidence and provide for the acceptance and appointment of a successor trustee and to add or change any provisions of the indenture as necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trust by more than one trustee; and
 
   
to make provisions in regard to matters or questions arising under the indenture, so long as such other provisions do not materially affect the interest of any other holder of the Notes.
Changes Requiring Approval of Each Holder
We cannot make certain changes to the Notes without the specific approval of each holder of the Notes. The following is a list of those types of changes:
 
   
changing the stated maturity of the principal of, or any installment of interest on, any Note;
 
   
reducing the principal amount or rate of interest of any Note;
 
   
changing the place of payment where any Note or any interest is payable;
 
   
impairing the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or after the date on which it is due and payable;
 
   
reducing the percentage in principal amount of holders of the Notes whose consent is needed to modify or amend the indenture; and
 
   
reducing the percentage in principal amount of holders of the Notes whose consent is needed to waive compliance with certain provisions of the indenture or to waive certain defaults.
Changes Requiring Majority Approval
Any other change to the indenture and the Notes would require the approval by holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Notes and Original Notes, as a single series.
 
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Consent from holders to any change to the indenture or the Notes must be given in writing. The consent of the holders of the Notes is not necessary under the indenture to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment. It is sufficient if such consent approves the substance of the proposed amendment.
Further Details Concerning Voting
The amount of Notes deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of voting will include all Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, authenticated and delivered under the indenture as of the date of determination except:
 
   
Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, cancelled by the trustee or delivered to the trustee for cancellation;
 
   
Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, for which we have deposited with the trustee or paying agent or set aside in trust money for their payment or redemption and, if money has been set aside for the redemption of the Notes, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to the indenture to the satisfaction of the trustee;
 
   
Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, held by the Company, its subsidiaries or any other entity which is an obligor under the Notes, unless such Notes have been pledged in good faith and the pledgee is not the Company, an affiliate of the Company or an obligor under the Notes;
 
   
Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, which have undergone full defeasance, as described below; and
 
   
Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, which have been paid or exchanged for other Notes due to such Notes loss, destruction or mutilation, with the exception of any such Notes held by bona fide purchasers who have presented proof to the trustee that such Notes are valid obligations of the Company.
We will generally be entitled to set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the holders of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, that are entitled to vote or take other action under the indenture, and the trustee will generally be entitled to set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the holders of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, that are entitled to join in the giving or making of any Notice of Default, any declaration of acceleration of maturity of the Notes, any request to institute proceedings or the reversal of such declaration. If we or the trustee set a record date for a vote or other action to be taken by the holders of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, that vote or action can only be taken by persons who are holders of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, on the record date and, unless otherwise specified, such vote or action must take place on or prior to the 180th day after the record date. We may change the record date at our option, and we will provide written notice to the trustee and to each holder of the Notes and Original Notes, as a single series, of any such change of record date.
Discharge
The indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to the Notes, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:
 
   
register the transfer or exchange of the Notes;
 
   
replace stolen, lost or mutilated Notes;
 
   
maintain paying agencies; and
 
   
hold monies for payment in trust.
In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must (i) deposit with the trustee money or U.S. government obligations, or a combination thereof, sufficient (to the extent of any U.S. government obligations, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants, investment bank or appraisal firm, to generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other applicable payments on the Notes on the applicable due
 
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date) to pay all the principal of, any premium and interest on, the Notes on the dates payments are due, (ii) deliver irrevocable instructions to the trustee to apply the deposited cash and/or U.S. government obligations toward the payment of the Notes at maturity or on the redemption date, as the case may be, and (iii) deliver an officer’s certificate and opinion of counsel to the trustee stating that all conditions precedent under the indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture have been complied with.
“U.S. government obligations” means securities that are (1) direct obligations of the United States for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged, or (2) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States, which in either case, are not callable or redeemable by the issuer thereof and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act) as custodian with respect to any such U.S. government obligations or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such U.S. government obligations held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depository receipt; provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. government obligations or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the U.S. government obligations evidenced by such depository receipt.
Defeasance
The following defeasance provisions will be applicable to the Notes. “Defeasance” means that, by irrevocably depositing with the trustee an amount of cash denominated in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. government obligations sufficient to pay all principal and interest, if any, on the Notes when due and satisfying any additional conditions noted below, we will be deemed to have been discharged from our obligations under the Notes. In the event of a “covenant defeasance,” upon depositing such funds and satisfying similar conditions discussed below we would be released from certain covenants under the indenture governing the Notes. The consequences to the holders of the Notes would be that, while they would no longer benefit from certain covenants under the indenture, and while the Notes could not be accelerated for any reason, the holders of the Notes nonetheless would be guaranteed to receive the principal and interest owed to them.
Covenant Defeasance
Under the indenture, we have the option to take the actions described below and be released from some of the restrictive covenants under the indenture under which the Notes were issued. This is called “covenant defeasance.” In that event, holders of the Notes would lose the protection of those restrictive covenants but would gain the protection of having money and government securities set aside in trust to repay the Notes. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, the following must occur:
 
   
we must irrevocably deposit or cause to be deposited with the trustee as trust funds for the benefit of all holders of the Notes cash, U.S. government obligations or a combination of cash and U.S. government obligations sufficient, without reinvestment, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants, investment bank or appraisal firm, to generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other applicable payments on the Notes on their various due dates;
 
   
we must deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that under U.S. federal income tax law, we may make the above deposit and covenant defeasance without causing holders to be taxed on the Notes differently than if those actions were not taken;
 
   
we must deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate stating that the Notes, if then listed on any securities exchange, will not be delisted as a result of the deposit;
 
   
no default or Event of Default with respect to the Notes has occurred and is continuing, and no defaults or Events of Defaults related to bankruptcy, insolvency or organization occurs during the 90 days following the deposit;
 
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the covenant defeasance must not cause the trustee to have a conflicting interest within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act;
 
   
the covenant defeasance must not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, the indenture or any other material agreements or instruments to which we are a party;
 
   
the covenant defeasance must not result in the trust arising from the deposit constituting an investment company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), unless such trust will be registered under the Investment Company Act or exempt from registration thereunder; and
 
   
we must deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel stating that all conditions precedent with respect to the covenant defeasance have been complied with.
Full Defeasance
If there is a change in U.S. federal income tax law, we can legally release ourselves from all payment and other obligations on the Notes if we take the following actions below:
 
   
we must irrevocably deposit or cause to be deposited with the trustee as trust funds for the benefit of all holders of the Notes cash, U.S. government obligations or a combination of cash and U.S. government obligations sufficient, without reinvestment, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm, of independent public accountants, investment bank or appraisal firm, to generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other applicable payments on the Notes on their various due dates;
 
   
we must deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel confirming that there has been a change to the current U.S. federal income tax law or an Internal Revenue Service ruling that allows us to make the above deposit without causing holders to be taxed on the Notes any differently than if we did not make the deposit;
 
   
we must deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate stating that the Notes, if then listed on any securities exchange, will not be delisted as a result of the deposit;
 
   
no default or Event of Default with respect to the Notes has occurred and is continuing and no defaults or Events of Defaults related to bankruptcy, insolvency or organization occurs during the 90 days following the deposit;
 
   
the full defeasance must not cause the trustee to have a conflicting interest within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act;
 
   
the full defeasance must not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, the indenture or any other material agreements or instruments to which we are a party;
 
   
the full defeasance must not result in the trust arising from the deposit constituting an investment company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act unless such trust will be registered under the Investment Company Act or exempt from registration thereunder; and
 
   
we must deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel stating that all conditions precedent with respect to the full defeasance have been complied with.
In the event that the trustee is unable to apply the funds held in trust to the payment of obligations under the Notes by reason of a court order or governmental injunction or prohibition, then those of our obligations discharged under the full defeasance or covenant defeasance will be revived and reinstated as though no deposit of funds had occurred, until such time as the trustee is permitted to apply all funds held in trust under the procedure described above to the payment of obligations under the Notes. However, if we make any payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest on the Notes to the holders, we will have the right to receive such payments from the trust in the place of the holders.
Counsel may rely on an officers’ certificate as to any matters of fact in giving an opinion of counsel in connection with the full defeasance or covenant defeasance provisions.
 
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Listing
The Original Notes are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market and have been trading under the symbol “GREEL” since October 14, 2021 and we intend to list the Notes under the same trading symbol.
Governing Law